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Ifektronix 



COMMITTED TO EXCELLENCE 



4050 SERIES 

GRAPHIC COMPUTING 
SYSTEM 

OPERATOR'S MANUAL 



Tektronix, Inc. 

P.O. Box 500 

Beaverton, Oregon 97077 

MANUAL PART NO. Firs ' Prin,in 9 JAN 1 976 

»,„.„-„«. This Printina MAR 1980 



WARRANTY 

Tektronix warrants that this product, excluding customer- 
supplied equipment, is free from defects in materials and 
workmanship. The warranty period is ninety (90) days from 
the date of shipment. Tektronix will, at its option, repair or 
replace the product if Tektronix determines it is defective 
within the warranty period. CRTs are warranted for one (1) 
year. During the nine (9) months following expiration of the 
product warranty, Tektronix will replace defective CRTs at no 
charge for the material. 

In the forty-eight (48) contiguous United States, the District of 
Columbia, and in other areas where Tektronix normally offers 
on-site service for this product, Tektronix will provide this 
service at no charge during the product warranty period 
described above. In areas where Tektronix does not offer on- 
site service for this product, warranty service will be provided 
at no charge if the product is returned, freight prepaid, to a 
service center designated by Tektronix. 

Tektronix may use the original vendor's service organization 
to service any product that is supplied but not manufactured 
by Tektronix. 

Tektronix is not obligated to furnish service under this 
warranty 

a. to repair damage resulting from attempts by personnel 
other than Tektronix representatives to install, repair, or 
service the product; 

b. to repair damage resulting from improper use or from 
connecting the product to incompatible equipment; 

c. if personnel other than Tektronix representatives modify 
the hardware or software. 

There is no implied warranty of fitness for a particular 
purpose. Tektronix is not liable for consequential dam- 
ages. 



Copyright © 1976, 1979 by Tektronix, Inc., Beaverton, 
Oregon. Printed in the United States of America. All rights 
reserved. Contents of this publication may not be reproduced 
in any form without permission of Tektronix, Inc. 

This instrument, in whole or in part, may be protected by one 
or more U.S. or foreign patents or patent applications. 
Information provided on request by Tektronix, Inc., P.O. Box 
500, Beaverton, Oregon 97077. 

TEKTRONIX is a registered trademark of Tektronix, Inc. 



PRODUCT 4051 ' 4052 > 4054 Graphic Computing Systems 



This manual supports the following versions of this product: B010100and up 



MANUAL REVISION STATUS 



REV. 



DATE- 



DESCRIPTION 



(a) 

A,B,C 
A,B 

C 

D 



1/76 

4/79 
4/79 
6/79 

10/79 
3/80 



Original Issue 
New Pages 
Revised Issue 
Revised Issue 

Revised Issue 
Revised Issue 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV D, MAR 1980 



CONTENTS 



Section 1 INTRODUCTION Page 

Overview 1-1 

System Operation 1-2 

The Basic Language 1-4 

The Documentation Package 1-4 

The Learning Blocks 1-5 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tapes 1-5 

The Manuals 1-6 

Learning Maps 1-7 

Beginner's Software Graphics Map 1-8 

Beginner's General System Operation Map 1-9 

Beginner's Graphics Map 1-9 

Experienced Programmer's Map 1-10 

Experienced Programmer's System Software Map 1-10 

Section 2 PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 

Overview 2-1 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape 2-2 

The PLOT 50 System Software Text 2-3 

Photographic Representation and Directional References 2-3 

Tape Cartridge Care 2-4 

Write-Protecting a Tape Cartridge 2-5 

Cycling a Tape Cartridge 2-5 

Inserting the Tape Cartridge into the Graphic System 2-6 

Error Recovery 2-7 

Marking a Tape File 2-10 

Section 3 GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 

Introduction 3-1 

The Tutorial's Role in the Documentation Package 3-1 

Implementing the Tutorial Program 3-2 

Using the Tutorial Program 3-4 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S HEV A. APR 1 979 



Section 4 Y ONLY DATA PLOT Page 

Introduction 4-1 

Operation Summary 4-1 

What Is a Y Only Data Plot? 4-5 

Initializing the Graphic System 4-8 

Initializing the PLOT 50 System Software Tape 4-9 

Creating a Graph Using All Default Values 4-9 

Alternate Method of Default Graphing 4-15 

Input Data Limits 4-16 

Changing Data 4-17 

Inserting Data 4-20 

Deleting Data Inside the Data String 4-21 

Adding Data 4-23 

Deleting Data at the End of a Data String 4-25 

Selecting Plot Symbols 4-26 

Selecting Plot Modes 4-29 

Autoscaling 4-32 

Listing Parameters 4-32 

Changing the Graph's Screen Position 4-34 

Changing the Data Ranges 4-44 

STOP 4-49 

Storing Data on a Magnetic Tape 4-49 

Section 5 X VS Y DATA PLOT 

Introduction 5-1 

Operation Summary 5-1 

What is an X vs Y Data Plot? 5-5 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape 5-6 

Initializing the Graphic System 5-8 

Initializing the PLOT 50 System Software Tape 5-8 

Creating a Graph Using All Default Values 5-9 

Data Limitations 5-14 

Selecting Plot Symbols 5-14 

Changing Data 5-16 



@ APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Section 5 (cont) 



Section 6 



Page 

Listing Data 5-17 

Adding Data 5-19 

Deleting Data 5-21 

I nserti ng Data 5-23 

Selecting Plot Modes 5-26 

Autoscaling 5-28 

Graphic Display Units 5-28 

Listing Parameters 5-28 

Changing the Shape of the Graph 5-30 

Changing the Data Ranges 5-39 

Graphing Negative Data 5-44 

STOP 5-45 

Storing Data on a Magnetic Tape 5-46 

HISTOGRAM PLOT 

Introduction 6-1 

Operation Summary 6-2 

What Is a Histogran? 6-5 

Initializing the Graphic System 6-9 

Initializing the PLOT 50 System Software Tape 6-10 

Creating a Histogram Using All Default Values 6-10 

Histogram Plot Limitations 6-19 

Changing Data 6-21 

Inserting Data 6-24 

Deleting Data Inside the Data String 6-25 

Adding Data 6-26 

Deleting Data at the End of a Data String 6-29 

Listing Parameters 6-30 

Changing the Graph's Screen Location 6-31 

STOP 6-41 

Storing Data on a Magnetic Tape 6-41 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



@ APR 1979 



IV 



Section 7 FUNCTION PLOT Page 

Introduction 7-1 

Operation Summary 7-1 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape 7-5 

Function Plot Text Summary 7-6 

Initializing the Graphic System 7-6 

Initializing the PLOT 50 System Software Tape 7-7 

Graphing the First Single-Variable Function 7-7 

STOP 7-13 

Graphing the Second Single-Variable Function 7-1 4 

Graphing the Third Single-Variable Function 7-16 

Selecting Plot Modes 7-1 8 

Selection Plot Symbols 7-1 9 

Autoscaling 7-22 

Graphic Display Units 7-22 

Listing Parameters 7-22 

Changing the Shape of the Graph 7-24 

Graphing the First Double-Variable Function 7-30 

Graphing the Second Double-Variable Function 7-33 

Changing the Graph's Range Values 7-34 

Section 8 SYSTEM VERIFICATION 

Introduction 8-1 

Implementation 8-2 

Section 9 KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 

Introduction 9-1 

The Basic Programming Language 9-1 

The 4050 Series Graphic System Hardware 9-2 

Overview 9-2 

The Keyboard 9-3 

The Processor 9-4 

Random Access Memory (RAM) 9-4 

The Magnetic Tape Unit 9-4 

The Display 9-5 



@ APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Section 9 (cont) Page 

System Operation 9-5 

Introduction 9-5 

System Initialization 9-5 

The Graphic System Display 9-6 

Cursors 9-7 

The Line Buffer 9-7 

The Page Full Condition 9-9 

The Type Ahead Feature 9-9 

Intensity 9-10 

Automatic Paging (Erasing) 9-1 

Character Size 9-10 

Vectors 9-11 

Addressable Units and Display Resolution 9-11 

Control Descriptions 9-11 

Introduction 9-1 1 

Front Panel Indicators 9-1 3 

The Alphanumeric Keyboard 9-1 3 

Character Font Selection 9-1 8 

The Numeric Keypad 9-21 

The Editing Keys 9-21 

User Definable Keys 9-23 

AUTO NUMBER and STEP PROGRAM 9-26 

Peripheral Control Keys 9-27 

The Thumbwheels 9-28 

Math Operations 9-29 

Introduction 9-29 

Real Numbers 9-29 

Numeric Constants 9-30 

Numeric Variables 9-30 

Numeric Range 9-30 

Arithmetic Operations 9-30 

Hierarchy 9-31 

Translating Algebraic Expressions into BASIC 9-32 

Math Functions 9-35 

Trigonometric Functions 9-36 

Matrix Functions 9-37 

User— Definable Math Functions 9-37 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S @ APR 1979 Vi 



Section 10 MAINTENANCE Page 

General 10-1 

Routine Maintenance 1 0-1 

Cleaning the Tape Head 10-1 

Cleaning the Dust Filter 1 0-4 

Running the Verification Software 1 0-5 

Cleaning Exterior Surfaces 1 0-6 

Cycling a Tape Cartridge 1 0-6 

Special Maintenance 1 0-7 

Fuse Replacement 1 0-7 

Hard Copy Intensity Adjustment 10-10 

Tape Cartridge Respooling 10-11 

Appendix A ERROR MESSAGES 

Appendix B SPECIFICATIONS 

Processor B-1 

Keyboard B-1 

Magnetic Tape Cartridge B-2 

Display Characteristics B-2 

General B-2 

Alphanumeric Display Format B-3 

Graphic Display Format B-5 

General Purpose Interface Bus B-6 

Physical Characteristics B-6 

Power Requirements B-7 

Environmental Specifications B-7 

Appendix C INSTALLATION 

General C-1 

Unpacking C-1 

Power Source and Operating Voltage C-3 

Connectors and Optional Peripherals C-6 

First-Time Operation C-8 

Repackaging C-8 

Line Voltage Selection and Fuse Replacement C-1 1 

General C-1 1 

The 4051 Graphic System C-1 1 

The 4052 Graphic System C-1 4 

The 4054 Graphic System C-1 8 



VII 



@ APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Appendix D ACCESSORIES AND PERIPHERALS Page 

Standard Accessories D-1 

Optional Accessories D-1 

Systems D-2 

4051 Graphic Computing System D-2 

4052 Graphic Computing System D-2 

4054 Graphic Computing System D-2 

Graphic Input D-2 

Graphic or Alphanumeric Output D-3 

Storage Devices D-3 

Interfaces D-3 

ROM Packs and ROM Pack Accessories D-3 

Software D-4 

Graphic Computing System Manuals D-4 

Peripheral Manuals D-5 



Appendix E 



GLOSSARY 



INDEX 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



i APR 1979 



VII 



IX @ APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Figure Description Page 

1 -1 4050 Series Graphic Computing Systems Frontis 

1 -2 4051 Graphic Computing System 1-1 

1 -3 4052 Graphic Computing System 1-1 

1 -4 4054 Graphic Computing System 1-2 

2-1 Tape Cartridge Components 2-4 

2-2 Tape Cartridge Insertion 2-6 

2-3 User Definable Key Number 1 2-8 

2-4 The Editing Keys 2-9 

3-1 Power Switch, Indicator Lights, HOME/PAGE 

Key.and AUTO LOAD Key 3-2 

3-2 PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu 3-3 

3-3 Tutorial Menu 3-4 

3-4 Tutorial Program General Information Frame 3-5 

4-1 Tic Marks and Axis Numbers 4-5 

4-2 Y Only Data Plot of Conti nuous Data 4-6 

4-3 Power Switch, Indicator L ights, HOME/PAGE 

Key, and AUTO LOAD Key 4-8 

4-4 PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu 4-9 

4-5 Y Only Data Plot Menu 4-10 

4-6 Y Only Data Plot with Negative Data 4-21 

4-7 Y Only Data Plot with Triangle Plot Symbols 4-27 

4-8 Y Only Data Plot with Square Plot Symbols 4-28 

4-9 Y Only Data Plot in Point Plot Mode with 

Square Plot Symbols 4-29 

4-1 Y Only Data Plot in Point Plot Mode with Plus 

Sign Plot Symbols 4-30 

Y Only Data Plot in Default Modes 4-31 

Y Only Data Plot with Normal Axes 4-34 

Y Only Data Plot with Compressed X Axis 4-36 

Y Only Data Plot with Compressed X 
Axis Shifted Right 4-37 

Y Only Data Plot with Compressed Y Axis 4-39 

Original Y Only Data Plot with Changed 

Data Range Parameters 4-41 

Original Y Only Data Plot 4-43 

Y Only Data Plot with Ext'eme Data Ranges 4-45 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A JUN , 979 



4- 


-11 


4- 


-12 


4- 


-13 


4- 


-14 


4- 


-15 


4- 


-16 


4- 


-17 


4- 


-18 



Figure Description Page 

4-1 9 Original Y Only Data Plot 4-46 

4-20 Y Only Data Plot with Clipped Data 4-48 

5-1 Tic Marks and Axis Numbers 5-5 

5-2 Power Switch, Indicator Lights, HOME/PAGE 

Key, and AUTO LOAD Key 5-8 

5-3 PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu 5-9 

5-4 X vs Y Data Plot Menu 5-10 

5-5 X vs Y Data Plot with Triangle Plot Symbols 5-15 

5-6 Data List 5-18 

5-7 X vs Y Data Plot with Plus Sign Plot Symbols 5-20 

5-8 X vs Y Data Plot with Diamond Plot Symbols 5-25 

5-9 X vs Y Data Plot in Line Plot Mode 5-27 

5-1 Parameter List Headings 5-29 

5-1 1 X vs Y Data Plot with Compressed X Axis 5-32 

5-1 2 X vs Y Data Plot with Compressed X Axis 

Shifted Right 5-33 

5-1 3 X vs Y Data Plot with Compressed Y Axis 5-35 

5-1 4 Original X vs Y Data Plot 5-38 

5-1 5 X vs Y Data Plot with Extreme Data Ranges 5-40 

5-16 X vs Y Data Plot with Clipped Data 5-42 

5-1 7 Original X vs Y Data Plot with Triangle 

Plot Symbols 5-42 

5-1 8 Original X vs Y Data Plot 5-43 

5-1 9 X vs Y Data Plot with Negative Data 5-45 

6-1 A Histogram 6-5 

6-2 Tic Marks and Axis Numbers 6-6 

6-3 Histogram of Test Scores with Cell 

Width = 5 6-7 

6-4 Histogram of Test Scores with Cell 

Width = 10 6-7 

6-5 Power Switch, Indicator Lights, HOME/PAGE 

Key, and AUTO LOAD Key 6-9 

6-6 PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu 6-10 

6-7 Histogram Plot Menu 6-11 

6-8 Frequency Distribution Histogram 601 5 

6-9 Percentage Histogram with Cell Width = 5 6-16 

6-1 Percentage Histogram with Cell Width = 10 6-18 

6-1 1 Frequency Distribution Histogram with 

Cell Width = 7.5 6-20 

6-1 2 Frequency Distribution Histogram with 

Changed Data 6-23 

6-1 3 Parameter List Headings 6-30 



XI @ APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Figure 


6- 


•14 


6- 


■15 


6- 


■16 



Description Page 

Histogram with Compressed X Axis 

Shifted Right 6-33 

Histogram with Compressed X and Y Axes 6-35 

Histogram with Expanded X Axis and 

Compressed Y Axis 6-38 

7-1 Power Switch, Indicator Lights, HOME/PAGE 

Key, and AUTO LOAD Key 7-6 

7-2 PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu 7-7 

7-3 Function Subroutine Instructions 7-8 

7-4 Entering a Function Subroutine 7-9 

7-5 Function Plot Menu 7-10 

7-6 Function Plot with Increment of 1 7-11 

7-7 Function Plot with Increment of .1 7-13 

7-8 Function Plot with Increment of .5 7-15 

7-9 Function Plot in Point Plot Mode 7-18 

7-10 Function Plot in Point Plot Mode with 

Triangle Plot Symbols and Increment of .1 7-19 

7-1 1 Function Plot in Point Plot Mode with 

Triangle Plot Symbols and Increment of 1 7-20 

7-1 2 Parameter List Headings 7-22 

7-1 3 Function Plot with Compressed X Axis 7-25 

7-1 4 Function Plot with Compressed X and Y Axes 7-26 

7-1 5 Function Plot with Extended X Axis and 

Compressed Y Axis 7-28 

7-1 6 Double-Variable Function Plot 7-32 

7-1 7 Function Plot with Extreme Data Ranges 7-35 

7-1 8 Function Plot with Clipped Segments 7-37 

8-1 Write-Protecting a Tape Cartridge 8-3 

9-1 The 4050 Series Graphic System Hardware 9-3 

9-2 Power Switch, Indicator Lights, and HOME/PAGE Key 9-6 

9-3 Wrapping Around to Display Remainder of Line Buffer Contents 9-8 

9-4 The REPRINT/CLEAR Key 9-8 

9-5 Keyboard Controls 9-12 

9-6 Front Panel Indicators 9-13 

9-7 The Editing Keys 9-21 

9-8 User Definable Key 9-23 

9-9 User Definable Key Program Control Transfer 9-24 

9-1 Transferring Control Between Subroutines 9-25 

9-1 1 The AUTO NUMBER Key and the STEP PROGRAM Key 9-26 

9-1 2 The Peripheral Control Keys 9-27 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S @ APR 1979 x ii 



Figure Description Page 

1 0-1 Tape Head Location 10-2 

1 0-2 Tape Head Damage 10-3 

1 0-3 Dust Filter 10-4 

1 0-4 Rear-Panel Fuse Location 1 0-8 

1 0-5 Hard Copy Intensity Control 10-10 

1 0-6 Light Path Location 10-11 

1 0-7 Tape Cartridge Respooling Procedure 10-13 

C-1 Fan and Air Vent Locations C-2 

C-2 Power Cord Conductor Identification C-4 

C-3 4051 /4052 Line Voltage Indicator C-5 

C-4 4054 Line Voltage Indicator C-6 

C-5 Rear-Panel Connectors and Backpack C-7 

C-6 Hex Bolts on Bottom of 4051 C-1 1 

C-7 4051 Power Supply Transformer Safety Shield C-1 2 

C-8 4051 Power Supply Transformer Terminals 

and Jumpers C-1 3 

C-9 Hex Bolts on Bottom of 4052 C-1 5 

C-1 4052 Power Supply Shield C-1 6 

C-1 1 4052 Line Voltage Selection Switches C-1 7 

C-1 2 4052 Line Voltage Switch Settings C-1 7 

C-1 3 4054 Line Voltage Fuse and Circuit Card C-1 9 

C-1 4 Removing the Circuit Card C-20 

C-1 5 Inserting the Circuot Card for 1 20 Vac Selection C-21 



XIII @ APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



TABLES 



Table Description Page 

3-1 Tutorial Commands 3-6 

9-1 4054 Graphic System Display Output Capabilities 9-10 

9-2 4054 Graphic System Tab Positions 9-14 

9-3 Effect of Control Characters on the Display 9-15 

9-4 4051 Graphic System Character Fonts 9-18 

9-5 Key Selection for 4052/4054 Graphic System Character Fonts 9-19 

9-6 ASCII Decimal Equivalents for 4052/4054 

Graphic System Character Fonts 9-20 

9-7 Hierarchy of Arithmetic Operators 9-32 

9-8 Translating Algebraic Statements into BASIC 9-32 

9-9 Parentheses in BASIC Algebraic Expressions 9-33 

9-1 Math Functions 9-35 

9-1 1 Trigonometric Functions 9-36 

9-1 2 4052/4054 Graphic System Matrix Functions 9-37 

1 0-1 Routine Maintenance Schedule 1 0-1 

1 0-2 Fuse Protection 1 0-7 

B-1 4054 Alphanumeric Character Display B-4 

B-2 Physical Characteristics B-6 

B-3 Power Requirements B-7 

B-4 Environmental Specifications B-8 

B-5 Tape Cartridge Environmental Specifications B-9 

C-1 Standard 4050 Series Graphic System Dimensions C-1 

C-2 Shipping Carton Test Strength C-9 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S @ APR 1 979 xiv 




1940-200 



Figure 1 -1 . 4050 Series Graphic Computing Systems. 



xv 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Section 1 



INTRODUCTION 



OVERVIEW 



It's called the 4050 Series Graphic Computing System. It looks like this . 




Figure 1 -2. 4051 Graphic Computing System. 



Or like this . . 



MP 




Figure 1 -3. 40£-2 Graphic Computing System. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



1-1 



INTRODUCTION 



Or like this 




Figure 1-4. 4054 Graphic Computing System. 

When you first see one of these, you may get the uneasy feeling that something is 
missing. Where's the rest of the equipment? After all, when someone refers to a system, 
you expect to see several black boxes and a web of interconnecting cable. Not this time! 
A 4050 Series Graphic Computing System is a system by itself, and a powerful one; but 
the system is compactly placed in one chassis. 

Before we begin talking in detail about your 4050 Series Graphic Computing System, let's 
take a few moments to summarize what the System is and how it operates. Then we'll look 
at the documentation package and find out how the supporting manuals and prepro- 
grammed tapes are organized. Finally, we'll point out different learning routes you can 
take to tailor the documentation package to your requirements. 



SYSTEM OPERATION 

Your 4050 Series Graphic Computing System (or simply Graphic System) receives, 
stores, solves, displays, and transmits logic problems that you create from a combination 
of symbols, letters, numbers, and graphics. The System accepts data from its keyboard, 
from magnetic tapes, and from other instruments. It displays data on its screen and 
transmits the data to another instrument, to magnetic tape, or to both simultaneously. 



1-2 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR S 



INTRODUCTION 



How can you use the Graphic System? All sorts of ways! You can use it as a super desk- 
sized calculator. You can consider it a graphics machine, too. It can generate graphs you 
create from scratch or with the help of the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. If you attach 
an optional hard copy unit, you can make paper copies of anything you display on the 
System screen. If you already have a printer that meets certain industry standards, you 
can make printed copies of Graphic System data. Another option allows you to use the 
Graphic System as a computer terminal; that is, the option permits the Graphic System 
and a computer to exchange data. This could be accomplished locally by a direct wire 
hookup, or commercial telephone lines could be used to connect the Graphic System to a 
remotely located computer. 

There are three memories in each 4050 Series Graphic Computing System. There is a 
permanent Read Only Memory (ROM) that contains the System's intelligence, a large 
temporary Random Access Memory (RAM) that stores data you want to process, and a 
small temporary memory (line buffer) that allows you to write something on the display 
screen and edit it before releasing the data to RAM. 

If this kind of equipment is new to you : don't be intimidated by the screen and those keys 
and buttons. When you study the keyboard, you can see familiar key arrangements. One 
group of keys looks like a typewriter keyboard; next to it is a numeric pad that resembles 
a calculator keyboard These key configurations have about the same functions as their 
familiar counterparts. 

The direct view storage tube (DVST) displays information. The information may be entered 
into the System from the keyboard, from outside instruments, and from magnetic tape. The 
vertical rectangular opening on the front panel is where you insert a magnetic tape 
cartridge. 

When the Graphic System is plugged into the proper power source and turned on, you 
can sit down at the keyboard and press letter, number, and symbol keys. Instead of the 
images appearing on a piece of paper—as they would if you were operating a 
typewriter— they are displayed on the screen. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 1-3 



INTRODUCTION 



THE BASIC LANGUAGE 

If you're going to let the Graphic System help you solve complex problems, you must have 
a way of communicating with it. You can't type keyboard commands to the System just 
any old way. You can't write, "Hey, machine, I want you to remember that Y equals 2 when 
and only when Y is preceded by X." Of course, the System is capable of responding to an 
easy statement like that faster than you can wink, but it won't do it until you write your 
statement in a special format— in a computer language. 

In the Graphic System, the permanent Read Only Memory (ROM) has been programmed 
to respond to BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), a computer 
language developed at Dartmouth College. BASIC has gained great popularity as a 
general-purpose computer language in the last few years because it's easy to learn, easy 
to remember, and easy to apply. There are two levels of BASIC: basic BASIC that forms 
the "hard-core" vocabulary used in all applications; and extended BASIC, which is basic 
BASIC supplemented with special commands created for a specific application. For the 
Graphic System, Tektronix has augmented basic BASIC with commands that expand the 
language to fit the Graphic System's capabilities. We call it the Graphic System BASIC 
language, a rich, versatile, and powerful extension of Dartmouth's BASIC. 



THE DOCUMENTATION PACKAGE 

The Graphic System documentation package consists of four manuals, a reference card, 
and two preprogrammed magnetic tapes. The manuals and tapes form a learning package 
that is structured to allow you to bypass irrelevant material and study subjects that 
complement your experience in BASIC programming. The reference card provides a brief 
summary for those already familiar with a 4050 Series Graphic Computing System. 

Because the Graphic System is so versatile, users from a variety of vocations are 
attracted to the System. They possess a broad spectrum of experience and skills. The 
documentation package is designed to help the beginner, the experienced, and the expert 
programmer learn how to use the Graphic System quickly and effectively. 

To satisfy such vastly different teaching requirements, the documentation package is 
divided into subject building blocks that start out with simple concepts and progress to 
complex system applications. For you to get optimum results from this package, you must 
understand what the building blocks are and where they are located. Only then will you 
be able to choose learning routes that will help you meet your system operation 
objectives. 



1-4 



REV A. APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INTRODUCTION 



First, we'll identify the learning blocks and then we'll stack the blocks into different 
learning configurations (learning maps) that may coincide with your requirements. At 
least we'll make you familiar with the blocks so that you can build your own learning 
structure. 



THE LEARNING BLOCKS 

Let's begin by examining the learning blocks in the documentation package: two PLOT 50 
System Software Tapes and four manuals. 



The PLOT 50 System Software Tapes 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tapes are duplicates. Put one of them in a safe place; it 
exists to minimize downtime in case the tape you are using is accidentally erased. Each 
tape contains the following programs: 

System Verification 

Tutorial 

Y Only Data Plot 

X vs Y Data Plot 

Histogram Plot 

Function Plot 

Special 4054 Features 

The System Verification Programs check for proper System operation when the Graphic 
System is installed and at any later time when System performance is in doubt. 

The Tutorial Program presents an overview of the Graphic System on the display screen. 
It discusses keyboard operations, gives a demonstration of graphic software, presents a 
programming primer, and talks about graphic commands unique to the Graphic System. 

The Y Only Data Plot, X vs Y Data Plot, Histogram Plot, and Function Plot Programs are 
separate software programs, each designed to help you create a specific type of graph 
with minimum effort. 

The Special 4054 Features Program familiarizes the 4054 Graphic System operator with 
unique features of the 4054. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 1-5 



INTRODUCTION 



The Manuals 

The 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual documents the following: 

Graphic Computing System Introduction 
PLOT 50 System Software Programs 

General Information 

Tutorial 

Y Only Data Plot 

X vs Y Data Plot 

Histogram Plot 

Function Plot 

System Verification 
Keys, Buttons, and Switches 
Maintenance 
Error Messages 
Specifications 
Installation 

Accessories and Peripherals 
Glossary 
Index 

The PLOT 50 System Software Programs sections provide text instruction for the tape 
counterparts. The General Information section offers an overview of the programs and 
provides important data common to the software programs. 

Keys, Buttons, and Switches gives an in-depth view of the keyboard and Graphic System 
operation. It is a natural follow-up to the Keyboard Operations Module of the Tutorial 
Program. 

The Appendices include: 

Error Messages— a numerical list and description of Graphic System procedure 
errors. 

Specifications— an outline of physical, environmental, power, and mechanical 
specifications of the 4050 Series Graphic Computing Systems. 

Installation — procedures for installation and first-time operation. 

Accessories and Peripherals— a list of Tektronix equipment and software that you 
can use with your Graphic System. 

Glossary— an alphabetical list and description of Graphic System terminology. 



1-6 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INTRODUCTION 



The Index provides an alphabetical subject locator. 

The PLOT 50 Introduction to Programming in BASIC manual is written for nonprogram- 
mers. It teaches programming in an operational format and confines itself to programming 
as it applies to the Graphic System as a stand-alone system. 

The PLOT 50 Introduction to Graphic Programming in BASIC manual is a sequel to the 
Introduction to Programming in BASIC manual. It is a text for programmers at all 
experience levels who want to create graphics without software-program assistance. 

The 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual is written for the experienced 
programmer. It presents an in-depth description of the Graphic System BASIC language. 



LEARNING MAPS 

Now that you know what the learning blocks are and where they are located, let's arrange 
them in logical groups. 

The Installation Group: 

Specifications— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

Installation— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

System Verification— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual and PLOT 50 
System Software Tape 

PLOT 50 System Software General Information — 4050 Series Graphic System 
Operator's Manual 

The Installation and Specification Appendices must be read prior to System operation. 
This is especially important because the System has power settings that must be 
selected to match local power input. A power mismatch may seriously damage the 
Graphic System. After the System is installed, the System Verification Programs should 
be implemented before operating the Graphic System for other purposes. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1 979 1-7 



INTRODUCTION 



The Reference Group: 

Keys, Buttons, and Switches— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

Maintenance— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

Glossary— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual/4050 Series Graphic 
System Reference Manual 

Index— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual/4050 Series Graphic 
System Reference Manual 

Error Messages— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual/4050 Series 
Graphic System Reference Manual 

This group's use is self-explanatory. It should be a supplement to all learning maps. 

Beginner's Software Graphics Map 

PLOT 50 System Software General Information — 4050 Series Graphic System 
Operator's Manual 

Graphic System Tutorial — 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

Tutorial Keyboard Operations— PLOT 50 System Software Tape 

Tutorial Demonstration of Graphic Software— PLOT 50 System Software Tape 

Choice of: 

Y Only Data Plot— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual & PLOT 50 
System Software Tape 

X vs Y Data Plot-4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual & PLOT 50 
System Software Tape 

Histogram Plot— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual & PLOT 50 
System Software Tape 

Function Plot— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual & PLOT 50 
System Software Tape 



1-8 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INTRODUCTION 



This is the recommended list and sequence for you to follow if you want to use the 
software graphics programs first. Later, you can follow the outline in the Beginner's 
General System Operation Map (leaving out duplicate material) to complete your Graphic 
System studies. 



Beginner's General System Operation Map 

PLOT 50 System Software General Information— 4050 Series Graphic System 
Operator's Manual 

Graphic System Tutorial — 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

Tutorial Keyboard Operations— PLOT 50 System Software Tape 

Keys, Buttons, and Switches— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

Tutorial Programming Primer— PLOT 50 System Software Tape 

PLOT 50 Introduction to Programming in BASIC— entire manual except Graphics 
section 

4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual— topics as needed 

This list in this sequence is intended for the beginner who has no interest in graphics at 
the moment. 

Beginner's Graphics Map 

Beginner's General System Operation Map plus . . . 

PLOT 50 Introduction to Programming in BASIC— Graphics section only 

PLOT 50 Introduction to Graphic Programming in BASIC— complete manual 

There is some overlap of graphics material in the manuals in this map. We think this is 
healthy repetition, since you will be reading fundamental material from two distinct 
viewpoints. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S HEVA, APR 1979 1-9 



INTRODUCTION 



Experienced Programmer's Map 

PLOT 50 System Software General Information— 4050 Series Graphic System 
Operator's Manual 

Graphic System Tutorial — 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

Graphic System Tutorial — PLOT 50 System Software Tape 

Keys, Buttons, and Switches— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

PLOT 50 Introduction to Graphic Programming in BASIC— optional 

4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual— topics as needed 

Error Messages— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual/4050 Series 
Graphic System Reference Manual 

Although the Graphic System Tutorial is written for the beginner, it also provides an 
excellent overview for the experienced programmer. 

Experienced Programmer's System Software Map 

Choose from these pairs: 

Y Only Data Plot Operation Summary — 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's 

Manual 

Y Only Data Plot— PLOT 50 System Software Tape 

X vs Y Data Plot Operation Summary — 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's 

Manual 
X vs Y Data Plot- PLOT 50 System Software Tape 

Histogram Plot Operation Summary— 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's 

Manual 
Histogram Plot— PLOT 50 System Software Tape 

Function Plot Operation Summary — 4050 Series Graphic System Operator's 

Manual 
Function Plot— PLOT 50 System Software Tape 



1-10 



REV A, APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INTRODUCTION 



If you're interested in software graphics, it is suggested that you place this map in the 
Experienced Programmer's Map following Keys, Buttons, and Switches. 

These learning maps will fit most people, but they may not be just right for you. If you 
would feel more comfortable designing your own, go back to The Learning Blocks in this 
section; everything is listed there. Rearrange the blocks until you find the combination 
that suits your requirements exactly. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 1-11 



Section 2 



Page 

Overview 2-1 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape 2-2 

The PLOT 50 System Software Text 2-3 

Photographic Representation and Directional References 2-3 

Tape Cartridge Care 2-4 

Write-Protecting a Tape Cartridge 2-5 

Cycling a Tape Cartridge 2-5 

Inserting the Tape Cartridge into the Graphic System 2-6 

Error Recovery 2-7 

Marking a Tape File 2-1 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1 979 



Section 2 

PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE 
GENERAL INFORMATION 

OVERVIEW 

The PLOT 50 System Software tape a lows you to: 

1 . Verify that the Graphic System is working properly. 

2. Use tutorial programs to overview the Graphic System's capabilities on the 
System display screen. 

3. Create four kinds of graphs with minimum effort. 

The System Software Tape and supporting text in this manual are designed for busy 
people like you, people who want to achieve optimum results from a minimum investment 
in time. The Graphic System Tutorial Program is in modular format and begins with simple 
concepts. You are not expected to have any special knowledge about computers, 
programming, graphs, mathematics, or the Graphic System. But if you do have expertise in 
one or more of these areas, you can bypass material you already know and move to 
pertinent material by using the System software's building-block construction. 

The System Software Tape is composed of four modules: Verification, Tutorial, Graphics, 
and 4054 Features. Let's examine these areas. 

The Verification Module contains two programs for checking the proper operation of the 
Graphic System. The Software Verification Program checks out system internal 
components: the keyboard, the Graphic System display, and data transfer to and from the 
internal magnetic tape unit. The Firmware Verification Program checks out System 
memory. 

The Tutorial Module provides an overview of how to use the Graphic System. The Tutorial 
Program displays frames of text and graphics arranged in four major subject areas: 
keyboard operations, graphic software, programming, and graphic commands. 

The Graphic Software Module helps you create four kinds of graphs on the System 
display screen with minimum time and effort. In these programs, most graph parameters 
are established for you; this permits you to create intricate graphs with little more than 
the raw data or the function you want plotted. If you wish to "customize" your graphs, you 
specify different parameters. It's very easy to do. 

The 4054 Features Module introduces you to special features available in the 4054 
Graphic System only. 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 2-1 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



THE PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE TAPE 

Two preprogrammed PLOT 50 System Software Tapes arrive with your Graphic System. 
They provide the Graphic System with instructions that direct it to perform specific 
operations. The tapes are duplicates. You should put one of the tapes in a safe location; it 
is your insurance policy against the inconvenience of having the tape you are using 
accidentally erased. 

We call a tape "programmed" when it has instructions recorded on it. When a 
programmed tape is inserted into the Graphic System tape slot, a program is transferred 
from the tape to the Graphic System memory in response to specific keyboard entries. 
The transfer of instructions from the tape to memory can be repeated as often as you like. 
A magnetic tape with software instructions on it is a convenience; it transfers long, 
complex programs to the Graphic System memory in seconds. 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape is recorded in software program segments; each 
program is designed to perform a specific series of tasks. At the beginning of the tape, 
there is a program table of contents called the Master Menu. It lists programs and gives 
them item numbers. When the Master Menu is displayed on the screen, you find a specific 
program on the tape by entering the appropriate item number into the Graphic System 
from the keyboard. 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape contains the following programs: 

Y Only Data Plot 

X vs Y Data Plot \ Graphic Software Module 

Function Plot 

Histogram Plot 

Tutorial Tutorial Module 



Verification Module 



Software Verification 1 
Firmware Verification j 
4054 Special Features 4054 Features Module 



The construction of the tape (as it applies to the location and sequence of programs) is 
unimportant since the Master Menu gives you immediate access to any program. The 
menu concept is used at all program levels. Menus are used in programs that contain a 
choice of routines. Like the Master Menu, each program menu lists alternate routines and 
assigns each routine an item number to permit immediate access. Some of the routines 
have alternate subroutines, too; so these routines have menus to give you a choice of the 
subroutines. The tape's menu format allows you to choose programs, routines, and 
subroutines with ease. 



2-2 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



Only one program is transferred (loaded) from the tape to memory at a time. This makes it 
necessary for you to make an intermediate stop at the Master Menu when you want to go 
from one tape program to another. There is no direct route from the Y Only Data Plot 
Program to the Histogram Plot Program, for example. You must use a program selection in 
the plot programs called "STOP" or press the AUTO LOAD key on the System keyboard to 
go to the Master Menu. At the Master Menu, you press the proper program item number to 
reach the Histogram Plot Program. It is important to remember that when you leave a 
program and return to the Master Menu, all input data (values you put into the program to 
be graphed) is erased (lost). 



THE PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE TEXT 

Text in this manual explains how to use the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. The text is 
organized like the software; it is divided into program segments. 

The text for each plot program contains a basic step-by-step description of the program 
and explains how it can be used to meet a variety of graphing requirements. The written 
sections each feature an operation summary that is designed for the experienced 
programmer or for beginners who have read the basic text and want to use the summary 
for a reference. Technical terms are avoided as much as possible, and each plot program 
is written as a separate entity. It is not necessary to study the plot programs in any 
particular sequence, since each plot program is structured to tell you what you need to 
know to use that specific program. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRESENTATION AND DIRECTIONAL 
REFERENCES 

Since many external aspects of the 4050 Series Graphic Systems are similar, 
photographic representation of one of the Systems is often representative of the others 
also. Where differences are important, you will see your specific System. 

In this text, when we use directional terms like up, down, right, and left, the terms relate to 
the operator's point of view, facing the Graphic System keyboard. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S FiEV A, APR 1979 2-3 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



TAPE CARTRIDGE CARE 

Performance of the internal magnetic tape unit and prevention of data errors are partially 
dependent on the handling of the tape cartridge. The cartridge contains a small plastic 
door over the tape access area to protect the tape. The door is automatically opened 
when the tape cartridge is inserted in the tape unit and closed when the cartridge is 
removed. The following precautions will help prolong the life of a tape cartridge and 
prevent data errors. 

• Do not touch the brown-colored tape in the cartridge. 

• Do not expose cartridges to direct heat or strong sunlight. (Note the environmental 
specifications in the Specifications Appendix.) 

• Acclimate a tape to operating temperature for several hours if it has been stored in 
a warmer or colder environment. 

• Use caution with cigarettes, cigars, and pipes around cartridges. Heat and 
contamination from a carelessly dropped ash can damage a tape. 

• Keep tape cartridges in a clean, dust-free area. 

• Do not allow the light sensing windows (Figure 2-1 ) to become dirty or smudged, 
as this may cause the tape to run off its spools. Under no circumstances should 
the windows be covered. 




WRITE-PROTECT 
CYLINDER 



TOP SENSING 
WINDOW 



FORWARD SENSING 
WINDOW 



1940-204 



Figure 2-1. Tape Cartridge Components. 



2-4 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR S 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



• Do not drop or throw a tape cartridge. Physical stress might bend the metal base 
plate or cause tape misalignment, resulting in data errors. 

• Keep cartridges away from magnetic fields and ferromagnetic materials that might 
become magnetized. Strong magnetic fields can damage the magnetically 
recorded data on a tape. 

• Do not leave a tape cartridge inserted in the tape unit for an extended period when 
the unit is not in use (such as overnight). This results in a temporary flat spot on 
the drive roller (Figure 2-1), causing the unit to be excessively noisy during the 
next few minutes of operation. It may also cause occasional tape slippage. 

Write-Protecting a Tape Cartridge 

Write-protecting a tape cartridge prevents writing on the tape or erasing information that 
is recorded on the tape. To write-protect a tape cartridge, insert a coin or a screwdriver 
into the cylinder with an arrow painted on it, the write-protect cylinder (Figure 2-1 ). Turn 
the cylinder until the arrow points to the position marked SAFE and locks there. To 
remove the write-protection, turn the cylinder until the arrow points to the position 
opposite SAFE and locks there. 

Cycling a Tape Cartridge 

It is wise to cycle (wind and rewind) a tape periodically to keep tension evenly adjusted 
and to prevent irregular stacking. This is especially important if only a portion of the tape 
is used repeatedly. Cycling a tape is very easy with the 4052 and 4054 Graphic Systems: 
simply enter CALL "MTPACK" and press RETURN. 

To cycle a tape with the 4051 Graphic System, remove the write-protection and proceed 
as follows. This procedure does not destroy data that is already on the tape. 

FIND n (n is the LAST file on the tape) 

MARK 1 ,400000 (large enough to reach the end of 

the tape without room for a LAST 

file) 

The 4051 Graphic System will reach the end of the tape, rewind it, and display an error 
message. Restore the LAST File before write-protecting your tape: 

FIND n (n is the NEW file just marked) 

MARK 1 ,1 (establishes a LAST file) 

Cycling a tape is also valuable when the tape has been dropped or has undergone a 
significant temperature change. 



40150 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 2-5 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



INSERTING THE TAPE CARTRIDGE INTO THE GRAPHIC 
SYSTEM 

Pick up the PLOT 50 System Software Tape between the thumb and fingers of the right 
hand so that the metal side of the tape cartridge is resting against your fingers. The tape 
label is visible, and your thumb is resting against the clear plastic side of the cartridge. 
Insert the cartridge about two inches into the tape slot in the right side of the Graphic 
System front panel (Figure 2-2A). 



A. Beginning. 



B. Finishing. 





Figure 2-2. Tape Cartridge Insertion. 

Release the cartridge; place your thumb against the label end and push the cartridge into 
the slot slowly. You won't notice much mechanical resistance until the cartridge's label 
end projects only 3/4 of an inch beyond the System front panel. At that time, notice that 
the EJECT button is flush with the front panel. Now press slowly against the cartridge 
until the last 3/4 of an inch goes into the tape slot (Figure 2-2B). 

When the cartridge is properly seated in the tape slot, you won't be able to push it in any 
further, the label end of the cartridge will be flush with the front panel, and the EJECT 
button will be fully extended beyond the front panel. 



2-6 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR S 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



ERROR RECOVERY 

Studying error recovery techniques is like studying first aid procedures; you feel 
obligated to study them, but you hope you never have to use them. You probably won't 
make an error while studying the System Software Programs, but it is reassuring to know 
what to do if you should make one. That's what this topic is all about — the kind of errors 
you might make, and the recovery techniques you must use to get the Graphic System 
back into a normal operating mode. 

You can make two kinds of errors: fatal and nonfatal. A fatal error is not as lethal as it 
sounds; if you make a fatal error while you're running a System software program, the 
System will go out of program control and give you control at the keyboard until the error 
is corrected. A nonfatal error needs correction too, but control is still maintained by the 
program. Fatal errors and some nonfatal errors require action on your part before you can 
resume normal System operation. We call your remedial action a recovery technique. 

If you make a mistake that violates Graphic System procedures or violates the BASIC 
structure of a statement, the System will notify you of the error by printing an error 
message on the display screen. If your ego can take it, being notified that you made an 
error is a convenience because it saves you time. But the System is not always that 
accommodating. If you make a typographical error while entering data to be graphed, for 
example, the System will not notify you of your mistake; in fact, it will not be aware that a 
mistake has been made. 

There are more than 80 types of fatal errors that can be made on the Graphic System. 
When you commit a fatal error, the screen displays a message similar to one of these: 

MAG TAPE ERROR IN LINE 1 31 - MESSAGE NUMBER 55 

INVALID FUNCTION ARGUMENT IN LINE 390 - MESSAGE NUMBER 21 

As soon as a fatal error message is displayed, a small blinking rectangle (cursor) appears 
at the left margin of the display. The appearance of the cursor signifies that the keyboard 
has control of the System. 

Right now, it's premature in your study of the Graphic System for us to define mag tape 
errors, invalid function arguments, or any of the other fatal errors. The important point at 
this time is for you to know what a fataf error message looks like on the display screen 
and how to recover from the error. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 2-7 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



In the System Software Programs, you are guided carefully from one operation to another. 
If you follow directions, you won't make fatal errors. But if you should make one, it's 
probably because you misunderstood the directions or pressed the wrong key. After you 
have performed the proper recovery technique and returned the Graphic System to the 
operating mode, go back several sentences in the text and read the directions carefully 
before you try to implement the trouble area again. 

Pressing User Definable Key Number 1 (Figure 2-3) is the recovery technique for a fatal 
error in the Y Only Data Plot, X vs Y Data Plot, Histogram Plot, and Function Plot Programs 
only. This causes the System to erase the screen and reprint the appropriate program 
menu. This recovery does not destroy input data, destroy a function entered before the 
error occurred, or reset default values. 



USER DEFINABLE 
KEY NUMBER 1 




Figure 2-3. User Definable Key Number 1. 

When a fatal error occurs in the System Verification Programs or the Graphic System 
Tutorial Program, the recovery technique is: 

Press BREAK 
Press BREAK 



Screen: 



PROGRAM ABORTED IN LINE 560 (line number will vary with error) 



Press AUTO LOAD 

The screen displays the Master Menu. 

This recovery technique (BREAK/BREAK/AUTO LOAD) will work in the plotting programs, 
too; but when it is used, functions and input data are lost and default values are reset. 
You also have the inconvenience of returning to the Master Menu. 



2-8 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



Nonfatal errors are syntax errors or errors you make when entering a function or other 
graph values. A syntax error is a mistake in the BASIC sentence structure of a statement. 
It could be a misspelled keyword, an omission, etc. A keyword is an alphabetical code that 
tells the Graphic System what function to perform. For example, RUN is a keyword; if you 
spell it RIN, you create a syntax error. 

After a syntax error is made and you press the RETURN key to dump the contents of the 
line buffer into the System memory, your incorrect line is reprinted on the display. Above 
it, are the words SYNTAX ERROR with an arrow pointing to the general vicinity of the 
error. Your attempt to unload data from the line buffer was ignored; the System refused to 
put an incorrect statement into memory. 

There are two recovery techniques for a syntax error. You can use the editing keys 
(Figure 2-4) to correct the error or press the CLEAR (editing) key (to erase the line buffer 
data) and start the line over. 



EDITING 
KEYS 



CLEAR 




1940-207 



Figure 2-4. The Editing Keys. 

You create a second category of nonfatal error when you make typographical mistakes 
entering data, entering a function, changing graph axes locations, etc. Since the System 
doesn't know your intentions, it accepts your data as correct as long as you do not violate 
Graphic System procedures. You can correct this type of error by using the editing keys if 
the RETURN key has not been pressed. If the RETURN key has been pressed, ignore the 
error and complete your entries. In each plot program, there are menu selections that 
allow you to add, change, or delete input data; use these selections to correct input data 
errors. When you make function entry errors, rewrite the function. If you make other entry 
errors, choose the appropriate menu hem a second time and rewrite the input correctly. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



2-9 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



MARKING A TAPE FILE 

Marking a tape file is a subject you should not explore until you have studied at least one 
of the PLOT 50 System Software Programs and wish to record input data on magnetic 
tape for later use. If it is premature for you to read this topic now, you may want to move to 
the Graphic System Tutorial. 

In three of the PLOT 50 System Software Programs, there are instructions on how to store 
data on a magnetic tape for later retrieval. The procedure given in these programs begins 
after you mark a file on a magnetic tape. Here, we discuss how to mark a file on a new 
tape and on a tape that has other data recorded on it. 

The magnetic tapes used with the Graphic System are packaged in plastic-and-metal 
constructed digital tape cartridges. The reusable magnetic tape in each cartridge has 
space for about 2,400,000 pieces of information. We call these information pieces "bits." 
They are grouped, like you group letters into words; however, in this case, the groups are 
always the same size — eight bits per group. These bit groups are called "bytes." There is 
room for approximately 300,000 bytes of data on a tape. 

You mark files to accomplish two things: to give the file a reference number so you can 
return to it later and to reserve tape space for data. When you mark files, they are 
automatically numbered sequentially, beginning with 1 . You can mark one or several files 
at a time. When you mark a file, you reserve tape space by specifying a number of bytes. 
The System marks off sufficient room on the tape to record the number of bytes you 
specify. 

By now, you're probably thinking, "How do I equate byte space to data space; how do I 
know how many bytes to reserve for my data?" In the PLOT 50 System Software 
Programs, input data is stored on an auxiliary tape in binary-data format. It takes 10 bytes 
of binary data to store each data item regardless of the data item's numerical size. For 
example, the number 2 and the number 1 00,000,000,000 each use 1 bytes of tape 
space (actually, only 8 bytes are used for data and 2 bytes form an "identifier" or 
"header"). If you add 1 to the number of data items you want to store on tape, and 
multiply by 1 0, you get the correct byte-space number you need to mark a file for your 
data. 

A data tape is made up of segments called physical records. Each physical record 
occupies tape space that holds 256 bytes of data. The minimum tape space that the 
Graphic System assigns to any file is three physical records long (768 bytes). When you 
mark a file for 1 01 bytes, the System assigns as many physical records as it takes to at 
least equal that number; the System does not split the last record to give you space 
exactly equal to your request. When you mark a file for 1 01 bytes, you get 1 024 byte 
spaces reserved for your data (the equivalent of four records). 



2-10 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



This is how you mark a file on a new tape. Turn the Graphic System on. Insert the new 
magnetic tape cartridge into the tape slot on the front panel of the Graphic System as 
described in Inserting the Tape Cartridge into the Graphic System. 

Type FIND 
Press RETURN 

This positions the System tape head at the beginning of the tape. Let's assume you want 
to mark one file for 50 pieces of data. 

Type MARK 1,510 
Press RETURN 

Here is what you have accomplished w th these entries: you have marked one file that 
reserves space on the tape large enough to hold 510 bytes of data. That file will actually 
be 768 bytes long — the System minimum file length (three physical records). 

If you want to create two files at the beginning of a tape with each file containing 201 
bytes of data, your entry looks like this: 

Type MARK 2,2010 
Press RETURN 

There is a procedure for listing a directory of tape files on the screen. Type the keyword 
TLIST and follow that entry by pressing the RETURN key. This asks the Graphic System 
to list a file directory of the magnetic tape currently in the tape slot. The System tape head 
starts at the beginning of the tape and searches its entire length for the beginning of each 
file. When it encounters a file, information about that file is displayed on the screen. In the 
last paragraph, we marked two files on a new tape. We reserved 201 bytes of tape space 
for each file. Here is what would be displayed on the System screen after a TLIST of that 
tape. 

1 NEW 2048 

2 NEW 2048 

3 LAST 768 

As you can see, each screen line lists one file. The list contains the file number (assigned 
automatically by the System), the contents of the file, and the length of the file in data 
bytes. Notice that we marked only two files, yet we got three. Why? 

Whenever you mark one or more files, the System establishes that number of files for you 
and always establishes a dummy file as the last file. The dummy file is a marked portion of 
the tape where the next new file will begin; it's just a convenient way of addressing the 
next available tape space. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 2-11 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



Let's discuss storing data on a tape that is partially filled. Suppose we have a data tape in 
the System that we want to use; however, we have no idea what the tape contains. We 
have to make a TLIST to see if there is any room available for one file of 75 data items. 

Type TLIST 
Press RETURN 

The display screen shows the following: 



1 


BINARY DATA 


2048 


2 


ASCII DATA 


3072 


3 


BINARY DATA 


3072 


4 


BINARY DATA 


1024 


5 


LAST 


768 



The screen listing reveals that the dummy file is number 5. By inspection, we can see that 
there is a lot of recording space left on the tape. Position the System tape head at the 
beginning of the dummy file and mark a file for 75 data items: 

Type FIND 5 
Press RETURN 
Type MARK 1,760 
Press RETURN 

That's really all you have to do; but let's make another TLIST of the tape and see what the 
file directory looks like after your entries. 

Type TLIST 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the following: 



1 


BINARY DATA 


2048 


2 


ASCII DATA 


3072 


3 


BINARY DATA 


3072 


4 


BINARY DATA 


1024 


5 


NEW 


768 


6 


LAST 


768 



Notice that the System labeled your file as NEW, and created file 6 as a dummy file 
(LAST) to allow access to the next available tape space. 



2-12 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



If you have a magnetic tape filled with obsolete data, you can go to the first file (FIND 1 ) 
and mark the file to your specifications. Marking this tape space also creates dummy file 
2 and erases all data previously in these spaces. In fact, all data previously on the rest of 
your tape is now inaccessible and for ell practical purposes is lost data. 

If you have a tape that has one file you want to save, but is otherwise filled with obsolete 
material, reuse the tape following the valuable file. Assume file 5 is valuable. If you mark 
the tape starting at file 1 , you lose the data in file 5. If you mark the tape beginning with 
file 6, file 5 remains. 

There's another technique you can use when you want to record data on a tape that has 
some obsolete material. Find a useless file (4, for example) marked to a tape area large 
enough for your data. Erase the contents of that file only, and recategorize that file as a 
NEW file by entering a KILL statement from the keyboard. You do it this way: 

Type FIND 4 
Press RETURN 
Type KILL 4 
Press RETURN 

Because the Histogram Plot and the Y Only Data Plot Programs have a limitation of 100 
input data items, reserving 1010 bytes of tape space is an adequate maximum for either 
program. The X vs Y Data Plot Program is different; it has an input data limitation of 1 00 
sets of data. Each set equals one X axis data item and one Y axis data item. If we unravel 
the sets, we have a total of 200 data items. Add 1 and multiply by 1 for a total of 201 0. If 
you mark a 201 byte space on the data tape, that space will store all input data allowed 
for the X vs Y Data Plot Program. 

You can be super-conservative and always reserve 1 010 bytes of tape space when you 
mark a file for the Histogram Plot or for the Y Only Data Plot Program, and reserve a 201 
byte data-tape space when you mark a file for the X vs Y Data Plot Program. If you do this, 
you'll be wasting a little space on your data tape when you store less than maximum 
quantities, but you'll never have a file marked too small when using these programs. 

You commit a fatal error if you don't leave sufficient room to store your data. When such 
an error occurs, the display screen shows a fatal error message that might look like this: 

EOF ON UNIT IN LINE 560 - MESSAGE NUMBER 48 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 2-13 



SYSTEM SOFTWARE GENERAL INFORMATION 



You still have the data in the System memory but your file is worthless. Some of the data 
is in the file; some of the data isn't. What should you do? If this is the last file on the tape, 
you can go back and mark it again, establishing sufficient room for the data. If it is not the 
last file, you can abandon that file and mark the next available one. Regardless, you must 
store the data again if you want to save it. 

Let's assume you're in the Y Only Data Plot program trying to store 1 00 data points (the 
program maximum) in file 7, which was marked for 768 bytes of tape space. File 7 is the 
last data file on the tape. You have the data tape in the tape slot, and the screen shows 
the EOF fatal error message. Remark the file: 

Type FIND 7 

Press RETURN 

Type MARK 1, 1010 

Press RETURN 

Press USER DEFINABLE KEY 1 

The screen displays the program menu. Select menu item 1 5 — STORE DATA. 

Enter 15 
Press RETURN 

Screen: INSERT DATA TAPE AND ENTER FILE NUMBER ? 

Enter 7 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA STORED 

INSERT SYSTEM TAPE AND PRESS RETURN ? 

You have remarked file 7 and stored your data in it. See the PLOT 50 Introduction to 
Programming in BASIC manual or the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual for 
additional information about marking files. 



2-14 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Section 3 



Page 

Introduction 3_1 

The Tutorial's Role in the Documentation Package 3-1 

Implementing the Tutorial Program 3-2 

Using the Tutorial Program 3.4 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1 979 



Section 3 
GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 



INTRODUCTION 

The Graphic System Tutorial Program provides an overview of how to use the Graphic 
System. Text and illustrations are presented on the Graphic System display screen in a 
sequenced format that encourages you to be a participant in the learning process. The 
Tutorial is like a book; from any program location, you have the freedom to go back as 
many frames as you like for review, or go forward several frames when you want to skip 
familiar material. At appropriate places in the program, you are given the opportunity to 
work independently, experimenting with material that has just been presented. This 
coupling of teaching techniques— presenting new subject material, then presenting the 
opportunity to "try it out on your own" — helps dramatize important topics. 

The learning process is enhanced because you are learning on the System you are 
studying. For example, in the Keyboard Operations Module you are given information 
about the editing keys; then you are asked to use those keys. You immediately see the 
effect editing keys have on display screen text. 

The Tutorial Program's value is not restricted to the initial learning activity. The Turorial is 
also a valuable review tool. An index permits you to select any single topic for immediate 
viewing. 



THE TUTORIAL'S ROLE IN THE DOCUMENTATION PACKAGE 



The Tutorial Program is not a text alternative; it is instead an integral part of the Graphic 
System documentation package. The Tutorial Program and the accompanying manuals fit 
together to form a comprehensive learning library for the Graphic System. 

The Tutorial is composed of four modules, a master menu, and an index. The modules are 
as follows: 

1 . KEYBOARD OPERATIONS. This module discusses operation of the keyboard. 
The Keys, Buttons, and Switches section of this manual discusses keyboard 
operations in detail. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 3-1 



GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 



2. DEMONSTRATION OF GRAPHIC SOFTWARE. This module demonstrates the 
four types of graphs that can be created using the PLOT 50 System Software 
Programs. Software applications for these plots are contained in the Y Only Data 
Plot, X vs Y Data Plot, Histogram Plot, and Function Plot sections of this manual. 

3. PROGRAMMING PRIMER. This module presents an overview of fundamental 
BASIC statements. A detailed discussion of Graphic System BASIC is covered in 
the PLOT 50 Introduction to Programming in BASIC manual. The 4050 Series 
Graphic System Reference Manual offers in-depth BASIC language information. 

4. GRAPHIC COMMANDS. This module discusses graphic commands unique to the 
4050 Series Graphic System. The PLOT 50 Introduction to Graphic Programming 
in BASIC manual provides a comprehensive discussion of graphing techniques. 
The 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual provides detailed information 
on each graphic statement. 



IMPLEMENTING THE TUTORIAL PROGRAM 

If this is the first time the Graphic System is turned on in your area, refer to the 
Installation Appendix to verify that your power source is compatible with the line voltage 
settings of the Graphic System. 

Turn ON the System by pressing the right side of the power switch located under the 
right-front corner of the unit (Figure 3-1 ). The four green indicator lights on the front panel 
(Figure 3-1 ) will turn on, but only the POWER light remains on. It stays on as long as 
power is applied to the System. 



HOME 
PAGE" 



It 



: )l 



"^^mrnt^mi || 




POWER 
SWITCH 



INDICATOR 
LIGHTS 



AUTO LOAD 



1940-208 



Figure 3-1 . Power Switch, Indicator Lights, HOME/PAGE Key, and AUTO LOAD Key. 



32 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 



Press the HOME/PAGE key. Now the screen will be blank except for a small blinking 
rectangle (cursor) in the upper-left corner of the screen. 

Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape into the Graphic System. Refer to the PLOT 50 
System Software General Information section of this manual for specific instructions. 
Press the AUTO LOAD key (Figure 3-1 .) This rewinds the magnetic tape, locates the first 
ASCII program on the tape, loads the program into the Graphic System memory, and 
begins execution — in this case, by displaying a program directory (menu). When you 
press the AUTO LOAD key, the BUSY and I/O (Input/Output) indicator lights (Figure 3-1) 
turn on. The System makes a series of sounds that normally occur whenever there is tape 
movement in the System. Figure 3-2 shows the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu 
that appears after the tape stops: 



** PLOT 50: SYSTEM SOFTNARE ** 

PROGRAM TITLE 

GRAPHIC SUPPORT PROGRAMS 

1 V Only Data Plot 

2 X vs Y Data Plot 

3 Function Plot 

4 Histogran Plot 

5 GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 

6 SOFTWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM 

7 FIRMWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM (4051 onlu> 

8 SPECIAL 4054 FEATURES (4054 only) 

ENTER THE PROGRAM NUMBER YOU WANT: l9 «. 209 

Figure 3-2. PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 



The Master Menu is an eight-item program directory. Notice that the Graphic System 
Tutorial is listed as item number 5. Press the 5 key. Press the RETURN key. You have just 
completed your Graphic System Tutorial selection. In a moment, the screen will erase the 
Master Menu and display the first frame of the Tutorial Program. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 3-3 



GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 



USING THE TUTORIAL PROGRAM 

The Graphic System has a repeat-key feature. If any key on the keyboard is pressed and 
held down, it is equivalent to pressing that key several times. The Tutorial Program often 
asks you to press the RETURN key to progress from frame to frame. If you hold the 
RETURN key down too long, the system receives several RETURN signals and remembers 
them. As a result, the frames will pass by more rapidly than intended until the System has 
used all the stored RETURN signals. Also, do not press the RETURN key until asked to do 
so. 

Figure 3-3 shows the second frame of the Tutorial; this frame displays the menu for all 
the programs in the Tutorial: 



This Tutorial progran is designed to fani 1 > arize you with the 4058 
SERIES GRAPHIC SYSTEM. 

Some of the sections are timed to present information at a speed which 
should be easy to read. Other sections require you to respond with an 
answer or choose an alternative. 

There are also sections that allow you to use the machine without the 
Tutorial program operating. In these cans, to resume the Tutorial type 
RUN and press RETURN. 



NOTE**The display will din after 98 seconds of inactivity 
to save energy. Press SHIFT to restore the view. 

The nenu below allows you to select alternatives. 

1 THE WHOLE TUTORIAL —Includes i tens 2,3,4 «, 5 

2 KEYBOARD OPERATIONS Introduction to the keyboard 

3 DEMONSTRATION OF GRAPHIC SOFTWARE —Graphic support software 

4 PROGRAMMING PRIMER — Fundamental BASIC statements t, item 3 

5 GRAPHICS COMMANDS Graphic statements, unique to the Graphic System 

6 INDEX Pick and choose individually from all the topics 

Please enter menu item and press RETURN 1910210 

Figure 3-3. Tutorial Menu. 



You can view the entire Tutorial Program or you can view single modules. To view the 
complete Tutorial, press the 1 key and then press the RETURN key. To view a single 
module, press the appropriate number key and then press the RETURN key. The System 
will display all the frames in that module before taking you back to the Tutorial Menu. 



3-4 REV A, APR 1 979 4050 SERIEIS OPERATOR'S 



GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 



Regardless of whether you choose to see the entire Tutorial or a specific program module, 
the first display will be the general information frame shown in Figure 3-4. 



If you or the Machine nake an «rror at any tine and the 
cursor <a rectangular blinking indicator) appears* 
then type RUN and press RETURN to resunc the Tutorial. 
If this fails* press AUTO LOAD. 



Any tine you are asked a question with a (YES, NO) 

answer or have the opportunity to "press RETURN to 90 on," you nay: 

A. Answer appropriately < YES, NO, RETURN) 

B. Return to the MENU (Type MENU and press RETURN) 

C. Turn FORWARD n pases <Type FORWARD n and press RETURN) 

D. Turn BACK n pages <Type BACK n and press RETURN) 

E. Leave the Tutorial altogether (Type GOOD BYE and press RETURN) 

F. Review the present page (Type REVIEW and press RETURN) 

G. Find the INDEX (Type INDEX and press RETURN) 
In the above n is the nunber of pages to be "turned." 

Press RETURN to go on 

Figure 3-4. Tutorial Program General Information Frame. 



Notice the frame's top statement. It tells you what to do if you should make a mistake. The 
rest of the frame gives you instructions on program movement. Table 3-1 provides an 
alphabetical summary of commands that control program movement for the Tutorial. You 
may enter them from the keyboard anytime you are asked to give a YES, NO response or 
"press RETURN to go on." You may nol enter them when a numeric response is expected 
or before leaving the general information frame (Figure 3-4). Remember to press the 
RETURN key after typing any of these commands. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1 979 3-5 



GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 



Table 3-1 



TUTORIAL COMMANDS 



Command 


Program Movement 


BACKWARD n 


Moves backward n frames 


FORWARD n 


Moves forward n frames 


GOOD BYE 


Moves to Master Menu 


INDEX 
MENU 


Moves to Index 
Moves to Tutorial Menu 


REVIEW 


Repeats current page 


RUN 


Attempts error recovery/Returns System to 
program control. 


YES/NO 


Moves to next appropriate frame 



If you decide to view the entire Tutorial and you want to quit in the middle of the program, 
wait until the complete frame is displayed and you are requested to press the RETURN 
key. At that point, type GOOD BYE. Then press the RETURN key. The System will return 
you to the PLOT 50 Master Menu. If you're through using the System for the day, the 
easiest way to terminate the program is to turn the System OFF with the System power 
switch. 

If you wish to review a single topic, go to the Index and select the appropriate topic. Enter 
the topic's number into the System by pressing the appropriate number key(s) and then 
pressing the RETURN key. After your review, press the RETURN key to return to the 
Index. To return to the Master Menu, select topic 20 (GOOD BYE) and press RETURN. 

If you are uncertain what you should study after you've completed a module or the entire 
Tutorial, you may find it advantageous to return to the learning maps in the Introduction of 
this manual. 



36 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Section 4 



Page 

Introduction 4 ~ 1 

Operation Summary 4 " 1 

What Is a Y Only Data Plot? , 4 " 5 

Initializing the Graphic System 4 " 8 

Initializing the PLOT 50 System Software Tape 4 " 9 

Creating a Graph Using All Default Values 4 " 9 

Alternate Method of Default Graphing 4 " 1 5 

Input Data Limits 4 ~ 1 6 

Changing Data 4 ~ 1 7 

Inserting Data 4 " 20 

Deleting Data Inside the Data String 4_21 

Adding Data 4 " 23 

Deleting Data at the End of a Data String 4 ' 25 

Selecting Plot Symbols 4 " 26 

Selecting Plot Modes 4 " 29 

4-32 

4-32 



Autoscaling 

Listing Parameters 

Changing the Graph's Screen Position 4 ~ 34 

Changing the Data Ranges 

STOP 

Storing Data on a Magnetic Tape 4 " 49 



4-44 
4-49 



yint;n qpqifc; nPFRATOR'R REV A, APR 1 979 



Section 4 
Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



INTRODUCTION 

If you are an experienced programmer, you have several options after reading this 
Introduction: read the Operation Summary, scan the text following the Operation 
Summary, or combine the two. If you're relatively new at this graphing business, read this 
Introduction, skip the Operation Summary for now, and begin studying the text that starts 
with "What Is a Y Only Data Plot?" Later you may want to use the Operation Summary as 
a reference. 



In the Y Only Data Plot text, we use one set of data for all demonstrations. Once that data 
is entered into the Graphic System and the program displays the Y Only Data Plot Menu, 
you have reached a STOP/START poinl. These labeled STOP/START points are 
convenient places for you to stop studying and turn off the System, aware that you can 
reenter the test's running commentary at that location with the proper settings on the 
Graphic System for future demonstrations. We'll provide you with detailed instructions on 
how to use this study technique when v/e reach the first text STOP/START point. 

OPERATION SUMMARY 

To initialize the Graphic System: (text: Initializing the Graphic System) 

1 . Refer to the Installation Appendix to verify that your power source is compatible 
with the line voltage of the Graphic System. 

2. Connect the power cord to the Graphic System and then to your power source. 

3. Turn ON the power switch located beneath the right-front corner of the unit. 

To begin the PLOT 50 System Software Programs: (text: Intializing the PLOT 50 System 
Software Tape) 

1 . Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. 

2. Press the AUTO LOAD key. 

3. The screen displays the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S rev A. APR 1979 4-1 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



The Y Only Data Plot Menu will be used as a reference base for this Operation Summary. 
Menu selections will be listed following their menu item numbers. Text references are 
provided to guide you to a detailed explanation. 

1 . ENTER DATA (text: Creating a Graph Using All Default Values) 

The data values are entered in sequence. The process of entering data is 
terminated by entering M as an input data value. 

2. DISPLAY DATA (text: Creating a Graph Using All Default Values) 
This menu item graphs input data. The Graphic System must have data, 
beginning X, and X increment values before a graph can be constructed. The 
System will query you about these X parameters before you attempt to graph 
data if these values have not been entered into the System from menu item 5. 

3. LIST DATA (text: Creating a Graph Using All Default Values) 
This menu selection presents a columnar list of input Y data. 

4. LIST PARAMETERS (text: Listing Parameters) 

This menu section presents a columnar list of selected or default condition 
graph values. They are . . . 

NUMBER OF 

POINTS: shows number of input data items. 

LINE CODE: displays the selected Plot Mode. 



SYMBOL 
CODE: 



gives symbol selection. 



SCREEN 
MINIMUM: 



displays X and Y axes screen starting points in graphic display 
units (GDUs). 



SCREEN 

RANGE: displays X and Y axes GDU lengths. 

DATA 

MINIMUM: shows X and Y axes minimum data values. 



DATA 
RANGE: 



displays X and Y axes data ranges. 



4-2 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



5. SET X PARAMETERS (text: Creating a Graph Using All Default Values) 
This menu item asks you to determine . . . 

1 . Beginning X: the value of the first plot point. 

2. X Increment: the value of plot-point intervals. 

The menu item has no defaults. If X parameters are not established, and you 
attempt to graph data, the two X parameter questions are asked automatically. 

6. SET X SCREEN POSITION (text: Changing the Graph's Screen Position) 
This menu item sets the X axis horizontal length and position in GDUs on the 

1 30 GDU horizontal screen surface. The default condition begins the axis at 30 
GDUs and ends it at 1 10 GCUs, establishing an axis that is 80 GDUs long. 

7. SET Y SCREEN POSITION: (text: Changing the Graph's Screen Position) 
This menu selection sets the Y axis vertical length and position in GDUs on the 
1 00 GDU vertical display screen surface. The default condition begins the axis 
at 1 GDUs and terminates it at 90 GDUs. This creates a Y axis that is 80 GDUs 
high. 

8. SET X DATA RANGE (text: Changing the Data Ranges) 

This menu item establishes minimum and maximum X axis data values. The 
default condition is a result of autoscaled X axis input data values. 

9. SET Y RANGE (text: Changi ig the Data Ranges) 

This menu item establishes minimum and maximum Y axis data values. The 
default condition is a result of autoscaled Y axis input data values. 

1 0. SELECT PLOT MODE (text: Selecting Plot Modes) 

Two modes are available: a default line plot and an optional point plot. 

1 1 . SELECT SYMBOL (text: Selecting Plot Symbols) 

Here you are offered a choice of five plot symbols: point, triangle, plus 
sign, square, and diamond. The point symbol is the default condition. 

1 2. INSERT DATA (text: Inserting Data) 

This menu item permits insertion of data into a Y data string already entered 
into the System's memory. Enter M as a data entry to terminate the insert-data 
routine. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 4-3 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



1 3. DELETE DATA (text: Deleting Data Inside the Data String) 

(text: Deleting Data at the End of a Data String) 
From this menu selection, you can delete data from a Y data string that has 
been entered into the System's memory. Enter M as a data item to terminate the 
delete-data routine. 

1 4. CHANGE DATA (text: Changing Data) 

This menu selection allows you to change one or more data values in a string of 
Y data previously entered into the System. An M is entered as a data value to 
terminate the data-change routine. 

1 5. STORE DATA (text: Storing Data on a Magnetic Tape) 

Data that has already been entered into the System's memory can be stored on 
a separate magnetic tape for later data reentry. This menu selection is made 
after a data file has been marked on a separate magnetic tape (optional 
accessory). 

1 6. STOP (text: Stop) 

Menu Item 1 6 is enabled from the Y Only Data Plot Menu or from any entry 
statement that permits an M entry. STOP takes you to the PLOT 50 System 
Software Master Menu. All defaults are enabled. All Y input data is lost. 

In addition to the menu items above, the following topics in the text are brought to your 
attention. 

ADD DATA (text: Adding Data) 

To add Y data to the end of a previously entered data string, select menu item 1, 
ENTER DATA. Enter the data in response to display screen queries. Terminate the 
add-data routine by entering M as a data value. 

CORRECTING ERRORS (text: PLOT 50 System Software Information) 

(text: Creating a Graph Using All Default Values) 

DEFINITION OF A Y ONLY DATA PLOT (text: What is a Y Only Data Plot?) 

INPUT DATA LIMITS (text: Input Data Limits) 

A maximum of 1 00 Y data values may be entered into the system in this program. 

PLACEMENT OF AXES TOO CLOSE TO SCREEN EDGE (text: Changing the 
Graph's Screen Position) 

STOP/START POINTS (text: Introduction - this section) 

(text: Creating a Graph Using All Default Values) 

AUTOSCALE (text: Autoscaling) 



4-4 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



WHAT IS A Y ONLY DATA PLOT? 

Y Only Data Plot is only one name for a type of graph you've been exposed to all your life. 
It has several names. Some people call it an Arithmetic Line Chart. Others refer to it as a 
Rectilinear Chart or a Cartesian Coorcinate Chart. Whatever its called, the Y Only Data 
Plot is probably the most extensively used type of graph in magazines, newspapers and 
other media designed for the general public. 

Graphs that show something changing against time, for example, are Y Only Data Plots. 
Population changes plotted by years, a company's gross sales figures plotted by months, 
or temperature readings plotted by hours or days are all applications of this type of graph. 
A Y Only Data Plot looks like this . . . 




and this 




and even this 




A Y only Data Plot is positioned against two reference lines: a Y axis vertical line, and an 
X axis horizontal like. X and Y axes are divided into segments by smaller lines called "tic 
marks." A number that labels a specific tic mark is called an "axis number." See Figure 4-1. 



75 r 



78 



65 • 



60 



55 



50 



45 



.TIC MARK 



AXIS NUMBER 



8 2 



6 8 18 12 14 16' 



1940-13 



Figure 4-1 . Tic Marks and Axis Numbers. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



4-5 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



The quantities, or variables, associated with a graph can be either "discrete" or 
"continuous." Discrete variables can have only a certain number of values. The number of 
members of your family, for example, is a discrete quantity. The "average" family may 
have 2.7 children but your family may have 0, 1 , 2, 3, or some other whole number of 
children. The amount of money you carry is another discrete quantity. You may have 
$7.61 , but not $7.61 392. On the other hand, continuous variables can have any value at 
all, within specified limits. Your thermometer may measure any temperature between —40 
and 140 F, at least in principle. As another example, when you drive to work each morning, 
your distance from home varies continuously as you drive. 

When we plotted daily temperature readings at 1 1 a.m. at the Portland International 
Airport, it looked like Figure 4-2. 



73 



79 . 



65 



68 



55 



50 



45 




8 18 12 14 16 18 

1940-14 



Figure 4-2. Y Only Data Plot of Continuous Data 



That's a Y Only Data Plot, It's a graph that plots either continuous or discrete variables on 
the Y axis against discrete variables on the X axis. 

Creating a Y Only Data Plot on the Graphic System from scratch isn't hard, but it does 
require some programming expertise and a Graphic System operating agility that many 
users don't want to take the time to acquire — at least not at first. 



4-6 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Using BASIC programs already stored on a magnetic tape to create Y Only Data Plots 
offers two major advantages: 

1. It saves time. 

2. It permits the beginning programmer or the casual user to create graphs with a 
minimum of study. 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape programs the Graphic System to calculate most 
graph parameters automatically. You a^e required to input only: 

1 . The data to be plotted. 

2. The beginning plot in the X axis. 

3. The frequency of plot points (plot increment). 

That's all it takes to create professional quality Y Only Data Plots on the Graphic System 
display screen. And it can be done quickly, because the System automatically determines 
most graph parameters for you. We cal ! these parameters "default conditions" or "default 
values." 

Although the defaults serve a variety of graphic situations, it is often advantageous to 
alter or "override" one or more default conditions to put a plot in a more appropriate 
setting. 

By overriding default conditions, you can: 

1 . Move the X axis horizontally on the display screen and make it longer or 
shorter. 

2. Move the Y axis vertically on the display screen and make it longer or shorter. 

3. Change the X axis data range. 

4. Change the Y axis data range. 

5. Choose either a line or a point plot. 

6. Choose from five plot symbols. 

Don't be alarmed if some of the terms don't make sense yet. This is an overview; later 
we'll discuss each item thoroughly. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1 979 4-7 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Now, it's time to create a graph on your Graphic System display screen. We'll go through 
the procedure together step-by-step, and we'll let the System do most of the work. After 
you've created your Y Only Data Plot using all possible default conditions, we'll examine 
those conditions and explore why you might want to override some of them from time to 
time. Finally, we'll take your graph, and by nullifying defaults, treat it like baker's dough. 
We'll squeeze it together, stretch it out, and knead it to change its appearance. This will 
emphasize how versatile the Graphic System software package is. 

During these demonstrations, you'll be entering data into the Graphic System from the 
keyboard. At the conclusion of the Y Only Data Plot discussion, we'll explore the 
procedure used when you wish to store system data on an auxiliary magnetic tape for 
later retrieval. 



INITIALIZING THE GRAPHIC SYSTEM 

If this is the first time the Graphic System is turned on in your area, refer to the 
Installation Appendix to verify that your power source is compatible with the line voltage 
of the Graphic System. 

Turn ON the System by pressing the right side of the power switch located under the 
right-front corner of the unit (Figure 4-3). The four green indicator lights on the front panel 
(Figure 4-3) will turn on, but only the power light remains on. It stays on as long as power 
is applied to the System. 



HOME 
PAGE 




— "ii 




INDICATOR 
LIGHTS 



AUTO LOAD 



POWER 
SWITCH 



Figure 4-3. Power Switch, Indicator Lights, HOME/PAGE Key, and AUTO LOAD Key. 

Press the HOME/PAGE key. The screen will be blank except for a small blinking rectangle 
(cursor) in the upper-left corner of the screen. 



4-8 



REVB.JUN 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



INITIALIZING THE PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE TAPE 

Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. Refer to the PLOT 50 System Software 
General Information section for specific instructions. Press the AUTO LOAD key (Figure 
4-3). This rewinds the magnetic tape, locates the first program on the tape, loads the 
program into the Graphic System memory, and begins the first program - in this case, a 
program directory (menu). 

When you press the AUTO LOAD key, the BUSY and I/O (input/output) indicator lights 
(Figure 4-3) turn on. The System makes a series of sounds that normally occur whenever 
there is tape movement in the System. Figure 4-4 shows the PLOT 50 System Software 
Master Menu that appears after the tape stops. 

** PLOT 58: SYSTEM SOFTWARE ** 

PROGRAM TITLE 

GRAPHIC SUPPORT PROGRAMS 

1 V Only Data Plot 

2 X vs V Data Plot 

3 Function Plot 

4 HistosraH Plot 

5 GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 

6 SOFTWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM 

7 FIRMWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM (4851 only) 

8 SPECIAL 4834 FEATURES (4854 only) 



ENTER THE PROGRAM NUMBER YOU WANT: 1940 . 2ra 

Figure 4-4. PLOT 60 System Software Master Menu. 

CREATING A GRAPH USING ALL DEFAULT VALUES 

The Master Menu is a seven-item program directory. Notice that the Y Only Data Plot — 
the program module we're looking for — is listed as item number 1. 

At the bottom of the menu is a single sentence we call an "entry statement." It is followed 
by a blinking question mark. When a blinking question mark appears, it indicates that the 
Graphic System is waiting for you to make a keyboard entry. 

To get to the Y Only Data Plot, press the 1 key on the numeric pad. From now on in this 
manual when you are expected to press a number on the keyboard, the expression, 
"Enter" will appear, followed by the appropriate number. 

Enter 1 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S r-iEV A, APR 1 979 4-9 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



When you press the 1 key, the 1 appears on the screen and is entered into the line buffer, 
a small temporary memory. Notice that the blinking question mark now appears to the 
right of the displayed 1 . The System is waiting for you to continue your entry or complete 
your entry by pressing the RETURN key. Whenever you are expected to press any key 
other than a number key, the expression will be "Press" followed by the name of the key. 
You're expected to use the RETURN key now, so we say . . . 

Press RETURN 



You can type data repeatedly on the keyboard, but until you press the RETURN key, the 
System will not act on your entries. When the RETURN key is pressed, the number 1 is 
sent from the line buffer to the System memory. 

Now the line buffer is empty. It will begin filling up as you enter additional data. It will hold 
72 characters before it refuses to accept any more. While data is in the line buffer, you 
can change it over and over again if you like. Once you press that RETURN key, you're 
committed! 

In effect, by pressing the 1 key and the RETURN key you say to the System, "Locate the Y 
Only Data Plot Program on the System Software Tape and display the Y Only Data Plot 
menu." After the tape-movement noises stop, the Master Menu is erased from the screen, 
and the Y Only Data Plot Menu shown in Figure 4-5 appears. 

Y ONLY DATA PLOT 

i ENTER Y DATA 

2 DISPLAY DATA 

3 LIST DATA 

4 LIST PARAMETERS 
3 SET X PARAMETERS 

6 SET X SCREEN POSITION 

7 SET Y SCREEN POSITION 

8 SET X DATA RANGE 

9 SET Y DATA RANGE 
19 SELECT PLOT MODE 

11 SELECT SYMBOL 

12 INSERT DATA 

13 DELETE DA T A 

14 CHANGE DATS 

15 STORE DATA 

16 STOP 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU 

1940-18 

Figure 4-5. Y Only Data Plot Menu. 



4-10 REVA,APR1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Notice the wording of the entry statement at the bottom of the menu. While you are using 
the Y Only Data Plot Program and this entry statement appears on the display screen, you 
can return to the Y Only Data Plot Menu by pressing the M key, followed by pressing the 
RETURN key. It also means that you can bypass the menu and go from one menu 
selection to another provided you know the appropriate menu selection number to enter. 
The menu is just a table of contents put in the program for your convenience. Use it when 
you need it; bypass it when you don't need it. 

Examine the Y Only Data Plot Menu for the proper selection. We want to enter data, so 
menu item 1 is our selection. 



Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

a question appears on the screen. . . 

DO YOU WANT TO USE THE KEYBOARD (Y OR N) ? 

You do, so... 

Press Y 
Press RETURN 

The screen is erased, and the following appears: 

ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY 
1 ? 

Earlier we showed you a graph of temperature readings. We'll be using that graphed data 
throughout this section to illustrate various program steps. Incidentally, the data is 
Fahrenheit temperature readings taken at the Portland International Airport at 1 1 a.m. 
Standard Time for the first 1 6 days in May, 1 975. The data was collected by the National 
Weather Service. The data in degrees Fahrenheit is: 



1. 


58 


2. 


49 


3. 


48 


4. 


47 


5. 


52 


6. 


53 


7. 


56 


8. 


61 



9. 


70 


10. 


65 


11. 


58 


12. 


60 


13. 


73 


14. 


66 


15. 


60 


16. 


63 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1 979 4-11 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Enter the first temperature reading. 

Enter 58 
Press RETURN 

The display responds to the entry and looks like this: 

ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY 

1 58 

2 ? 

The screen is asking for the second data entry. 

Enter 49 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays your second entry and asked for a third. Continue in the same 
manner until you enter the 1 6 temperature values. If you make a mistake, but haven't hit 
the RETURN key, corrections are easy. The data is still in the line buffer and subject to 
editing. You can backspace, delete, add, or whatever. If you make a mistake and don't 
realize it until after you have pressed the RETURN key, remember the mistake and its 
location but continue your data entries. After you have completed all data entries and 
return to the Y Only Data Plot Menu, you can select another menu item that allows you to 
change data. We'll study that procedure later. 

When you have entered all the data, the screen will look like this: 



DATA 


LIST 




NUMBER 




VALUE 


1 






53 


2 






49 


3 






48 


4 






4? 


5 






52 


e 






53 


7 






56 


8 






61 


<) 






70 


10 






65 


11 






58 


12 






60 


13 






73 


14 






66 


15 






60 


16 






63 


END 


OF 


LIST 





ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OP M FOR NEW MENU 

1'HO 21 1 



4-12 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Whenever you're working with data (entering it, adding to it, changing it, deleting it, or 
making insertions in it) the Graphic System has no way of knowing how many data items 
you're working with. It will continue asking you for data until you tell it to stop. You do that 
by entering an M. This terminates the data routine and returns the program to the Y Only 
Data Plot Menu. It is appropriate to do that now. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 



This is a STOP/START point. 

The screen reflects the M entry, erases, and displays the Y Only Data Plot Menu. 

We just passed the first STOP/START point. Let's discuss how to resume using the text 
and continue with the demonstrations f you terminate your studies at one of these 
STOP/START points. We assume you turned off the Graphic System at the STOP/START 
point. Here's how to reenter: 

1. Initialize the Graphic System. 

2. Initialize the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. This displays the PLOT 50 
System Software Master Menu. 

3. Select menu item 1 . This displays the Y Only Data Plot Menu. 

4. Select menu item 1 — ENTER DATA — and enter the 1 6 temperature readings. 

5. Select menu item 5 and enter 1 for both the "beginning X" and "X increment" 
queries. 

6. Return to the Y Only Data Plot Menu. 

7. Resume your studies. 

Now, back to the creation of our graph Choose menu item 2 — DISPLAY DATA. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 4-13 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



The 2 appears on the screen following the entry statement at the bottom of the menu. 
Another entry statement is displayed. 

ENTER BEGINNING X ? 

You are plotting daily temperature readings from the first of May. Begin your X axis plot 
with a 1 . If you were beginning your plots on the 1 6th of May, you would want to start your 
beginning X axis plot point at 1 6. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the 1 . Another entry statement appears. 

ENTER X INCREMENT? 

The System wants to know how frequently to plot the data values against the X axis. 
Since these were daily temperature readings, you'll want to plot them in increments of 1 
(every other day would be 2; twice a day would be .5 increments). 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

The display screen shows the 1 , erases, and your graph is created! 



75 r 



78 



65 



68 



55 



58 



45 




12 14 



16 18 

1940-20 



4-14 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Congratuations! Now, return to the Y Only Data Plot Menu. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 

Remember, you can't plot a Y Only Data Plot without giving the System at least three 
things: 

1 . Y data. 

2. Beginning X. 

3. X increment. 

ALTERNATE METHOD OF DEFAULT GRAPHING 

We used only two menu selections to create our graph: 1 and 2. There is another menu 
selection routine that you can use to create the same graph: 1 , 5, and 2. Here's how it 
works . . . 

Menu selection 1 is ENTER DATA. We've already done that, so we'll bypass the first menu 
item and go to selection 5 — SET X PARAMETERS. 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

The display screen shows: 

ENTER BEGINNING X ? 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER X INCREMENT ? 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 4-15 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Now we have all the data entered into the System that is necessary to create a graph. 
Let's do it! 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



75 r 



78 



65 



60 



55 



50 




45 '■■■•■■■•■ 
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 



You've just created the same graph using the alternate method. Go back to the menu. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 



INPUT DATA LIMITS 

You cannot enter more than 1 00 Y axis data values. When you enter the 1 00th data item, 
the screen displays the following: 

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF VALUES IS 100 

ENTER NEW MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU? 



4-16 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



CHANGING DATA 

Sometimes you may want to change data because you make a mistake entering data 
values and don't realize it until after you pressed the RETURN key. Or maybe you're 
working on a project where one or two data points change while the others remain fixed. 
Retaining the old data and changing to the one or two new data values is more expedient 
than reentering the entire data string. 

Or maybe you're the sales manager of a company, and you want to project the effect 
different courses of action will have on gross national sales for the next several months. 
By changing data, you can project alternatives without having to reenter a complicated 
total data input. 

Now that we've indicated a few applications for this feature, let's find out how to do it. 

Notice that menu item 3 is a data list. This selection is a valuable reference that you'll use 
frequently. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the data list. Notice that both the data and the item numbers are 
listed. When inserting, deleting, or changing data, the data item number is used to refer to 
the appropriate data value. 

Look at data item 4, which is 47°. Assume you've got incorrect data for the fourth day, and 
you just found out that the temperature reading was really 70°. Here's how to make the 
change. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Y Only Data Plot Menu. Observe that item 1 4 is CHANGE DATA. 

Enter 14 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED ? 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 4-17 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Screen: CURRENT VALUE OF ITEM 4 IS 47 

CHANGE TO ? 

Enter 70 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER ITEM TO BE CHANGED ? 



The Graphic System has to be ready to accept more than one data change. You terminate 
the data-change routine by entering M as a data value. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Y Only Data Plot Menu. Draw your graph: 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



73 , 



?8 - 



65 



68 



53 



50 



45 




10 12 14 



16 18 

1940-22 



Notice that the display screen did not ask for beginning X or X increment values. Once the 
initial graph is created, the System assumes that these values remain constant. Of 
course, if you want to change these parameters, you select menu item 5. 



4-18 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



We want to preserve the original temperature data, so let's change data item 4 back to its 
original value. Here's the procedure . . . 

Enter 14 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED ? 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

Screen: CURRENT VALUE OF ITEM 4 IS 70 

CHANGE TO ? 

Enter 47 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM TO BE CHANGED ? 

Press M 
Press Return 

The screen displays the menu. Let's verify the change by going to the data list. 

Enter 3 

Press RETJRN 

The screen displays the temperature data list. Item 4 is now 47. 

This is a STOP/START point. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 4-19 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



INSERTING DATA 

If you wish to insert data in a data string already in System memory, the procedure is as 
simple as it was for changing data. Assume that between data items 8 and 9, you 
inadvertently left out a reading of —44° (our apologies to the Portland Chamber of 
Commerce for even imagining such a temperature). You discover the error and want to 
insert the data value and regraph. Notice in our data list that data item 8 is listed at 61 ° 
and that data item 9 is listed at 70°. Go to the Y Only Data Plot Menu and find the 
appropriate item for inserting data. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. Item 1 2 is our selection — INSERT DATA. 

Enter 12 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE PRECEDED ? 

We want our "left out" temperature reading to slip between items 8 and 9, so we want to 
precede 9. 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER NEW VALUE ? 

Enter —44 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE PRECEDED ? 

We terminate the insert routine by entering M as a data value. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. Let's verify the change with a data list, then graph the 
temperature so we can observe the parameters of our first negative-number Y Only Data 
Plot. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 



4-20 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



The screen shows the data list. Notice that former data items 9 through 1 6 have been 
reassigned data item numbers 1 through 1 7, one sequential item number higher to allow 
— 44°to be inserted as data item 9. Figure 4-6 shows the graph of this data. 

Enter 2 
Press Return 




Figure 4-6. Y Only Data Plot with Negative Data. 

DELETING DATA INSIDE THE DATA STRING 

Deleting data is simple, too. Since we want to return to our original data anyway, let's 
demonstrate the delete procedure by taking the — 44°out of the data string. Return to the 
data list to find out what the item number is of the— 44°data item is. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

We go to the menu to find the data-list item number. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



4-21 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Verify that the item number for— 44° is 9. Go to the menu and find the proper menu 
selection for deleting data. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. Notice that selection 1 3 is DELETE DATA. 

Enter 13 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED -44 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 



Enter M as a data item to terminate the delete routine. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. Go to the data list. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the data list. Notice that when data is deleted, all data following the 
deletion is assigned a lower data item number to compensate for the deletion gap. In this 
instance, the temperature readings for the 9th day and beyond have been reassigned to 
their original data item numbers. 

Thus far, we've been discussing deletions from the middle of a data string. The procedure 
for deleting data from the end of a data string is different. We'll defer studying this 
technique for a few moments while we discuss how to add data to the end of a data string. 
After we cover that topic, a demonstration of how to delete data from the end of a data 
string will be a natural follow-up. 

This is a STOP/START point. 



4-22 REV A, APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



ADDING DATA 

You can add to data already entered in memory at any time. The Graphic System 
accommodates you by displaying the next available data item number. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DO YOU WISH TO ADD TO PREVIOUS DATA (Y OR N) ? 

PRESS Y 
PRESS RETURN 

Screen: ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY ? 
17 ? 

Let's add four additional values: —5, 7. 32, and 66. 

Enter —5 
Press RETURN 

Screen: 17 — 5 ? 

18 ? 

Enter the last three items (7, 32, and 66) in the same manner. Now, we'll discontinue data 
entries by entering M as a data value, verify by observing a data list, and follow up with a 
graph. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



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Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



The screen displays the data list with the additional items. 




4-24 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



DELETING DATA AT THE END OF A DATA STRING 

We want to return to our original data, so we will delete the four data items we just put on 
the end of our data string. 

Delete the lowest unwanted data item number as many times as there are numbers to be 
deleted. In this case, 1 7 is the lowest data item to be deleted. We want to eliminate four 
numbers; delete 1 7 four times. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Y Only Data Plot Menu. Item 1 3 is DELETE DATA. 

Enter 13 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 



Enter 17 
Press RETLRN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED -5 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 17 
Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED 7 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 1 7 
Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED 32 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 17 
Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED 66 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



4-25 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



To terminate the delete data routine, it is necessary to enter M as a data value. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 



SELECTING PLOT SYMBOLS 

The Y Only Data Plot Program offers you a choice of five plot symbols. Let's take a look at 
them. Select menu item 1 1 - SELECT SYMBOL 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

Screen: 1. POINT 

2. TRIANGLE 

3. PLUS SIGN 

4. SQUARE 

5. DIAMOND 

SELECT NUMBER AND PRESS RETURN ? 

The point, item 1 on this menu, is the default value; it is the symbol we've been plotting 
with thus far. Let's create a graph with the triangle plot symbol, and follow that with a 
graph using square plot symbols. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



4-26 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Figure 4-7 shows a graph using triangles. 



73 r 



78 



65 



ee 



55 • 



58 



45 I 1- 




■ L ' * I A * 



2 4 6 8 18 12 14 16 18 



Figure 4-7. Y Only Data Plot with Triangle Plot Symbols. 

Notice that a triangle represents each graph point (temperature reading). Go through the 
procedure again for square plot symbols. 

Enter 11 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Symbol Menu. Selection 4 displays square symbols. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APR 1979 



4-27 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Figure 4-8 shows the same graph, but the plot symbols are squares. 




Figure 4-8. Y Only Data Plot with Square Plot Symbols. 



What symbol should you use? It depends on your aesthetic tastes and the type of graph 
you want to present. 



Let's return to the Y Only Data Plot Menu and study another subject. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 



4-28 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



SELECTING PLOT MODES 

SELECT PLOT MODE, menu selection 1 0, gives you a choice of plotting with points only 
or with points connected by lines. 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: 1. LINE PLOT MODE 

2. POINT PLOT MODE 

SELECT NUMBER AND PRESS RETURN ? 

Here we have a real mini-menu, only two items. The Line Plot Mode is the default 
condition we've been using. We're still in the Square Symbol Mode from menu item 1 1 . 
Let's stay with the square symbols and combine them with the Point Plot Mode (Figure 4- 
9). 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



73 



78 



65 ■ 



68 



55 



58 



45 



2 4 6 8 16 12 14 16 18 

1940-27 



Figure 4-9. Y Only Data Plot in Point Plot Mode with Square Plot Symbols. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APR 1979 



4-29 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Now, let's stay in the Point Plot Mode, but change to plus sign symbols. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen shows the Symbol Menu. We want item 3 — PLUS SIGN. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Figure 4-9 shows the same graph, but the plot symbols are plus signs. 



73 



78 



65 ■ 



68 



55 



58 



45 I ■ >- 



+ + 



_j 1 1 1 i i i 



2 4 6 8 18 12 14 16 18 

1940-28 



Figure 4-1 0. Y Only Data Plot in Point Plot Mode with Plus Sign Plot Symbols. 

Since we are ready to study another subject, we want to go back to the default conditions 
we started with: Line Plot Mode and Point Symbol Mode. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 



4-30 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



The screen displays the Symbol Menu. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Plot Mode Menu. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



An easy way to verify that you are back to your default conditions is to create a graph 
(Figure 4-1 1). 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



?3 r 



?8 ■ 



65 ■ 



68 ■ 



55 



50 



45 




2 4 6 8 18 12 14 16 18 



Figure 4-11. Y Only Data Plot in Default Modes. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APF 1 ! 1979 



4-31 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Looks familiar, doesn't it? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 

AUTOSCALING 

When you put Y data into the Graphic System without specifying specific X and Y axes 
data ranges at the time you request a graph, the System establishes X and Y axes data 
ranges that include all input data. We call that automatic range determination 
"autoscaling." When we talk about data ranges for an X axis, for example, we're referring 
to the minimum to maximum data values that are plotted against the X axis. The X axis 
index numbers (the numbers that label the X axis tic marks) reflect those data range 
values. This range format applies to the Y axis also. 

If you put data into the Graphic System and immediately ask for a Y Only Data Plot by 
selecting menu item 2, the System searches its memory to see if you gave it data range 
instructions. If not, the System autoscales the data. Remember, the System does not 
autoscale until just before the graph is created. 

LISTING PARAMETERS 

We divide the System display screen into 1 00 vertical and 1 30 horizontal units called 
Graphic Display Units (GDUs). We'll be working with these units to relocate the graph on 
the display screen. 

When you select item 4 — LIST PARAMETERS — on the Y Only Data Plot Menu, you have 
picked out a handy reference chart that will assist you in many plotting situations. Let's 
take a few moments to talk about these parameter entries. 

Enter 4 
Press Return 



Screen: PARAMETER LIST 

NUMBER OF POINTS 
LINE CODE 1 
SYMBOL 1 

SCREEN MINIMUM 
SCREEN RANGE 
DATA MINIMUM 
DATA RANGE 



16 



-X- 


-Y- 


30 


10 


80 


80 





45 


18 


30 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



4-32 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Here is an explanation of the Parameter List headings: 

NUMBER OF 

POINTS: This refers to the number of data items you enter. 

LINE CODE: It's another name for Plot Mode. The default value is Line Plot Mode 
(plot menu item 1). 

SYMBOL CODE: 

This refers to menu item 1 I . The default value is Point Symbol Mode 
(symbol menu item 1). 



SCREEN 
MINIMUM: 



This indicates the Graphic Display Unit (GDU) at the beginning of the 
X axis. When in a default condition, the X axis begins 30 GDUs 
horizontally from the left side of the screen, and the Y axis begins 1 
GDUs vertically from the bottom of the screen. These default 
conditions provide a screen graphing location suitable for most 
situations. 



SCREEN 
RANGE: 



These entries indicate the length of the X and Y axes in GDUs. If you 
add this value to an axis screen minimum, you obtain the axis 
termination point expressed in GDUs (screen maximum). 



DATA 
MINIMUM: 



The data minimum is the X and Y axes data minimums established by 
you, or it is the autoscaled data minimums selected by the System. 



DATA 
RANGE: 



These numbers show the total data range for each axis. Add the data 
range number to the data minimum, and the result is the data 
maximum value. 



We'll reinforce these definitions with specific examples in the next few paragraphs. Don't 
feel uneasy if they are not yet clear to you. 

If you entered the text at the last STOP/START point, the data range and data minimum 
values on your Parameter List will be zeros instead of the numbers shown in the text 
example. The System does not autoscale until a graph is created. Since the entry point 
occurred subsequent to the last graphing demonstration, since you haven't established 
data ranges, and since the System hasn't been forced to autoscale, there just aren't any 
data ranges yet. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



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CHANGING THE GRAPH'S SCREEN POSITION 

Shortening and lengthening the X and Y axes emphasizes or de-emphasizes the impact of 
the graphed data. If we stretch the X axis and compress the Y axis, we "flatten out" the 
graphed data and de-emphasize differences in the data. Conversely, if we lengthen the Y 
axis and shorten the X axis, we make minor data differences appear huge. 

Let's take our familiar temperature graph and observe how it seems to tell a different story 
when we push the X and Y axes around. We'll use extreme examples to dramatize the 
differences. We'll begin by shortening the X axis to emphasize data differences. 

You should still be displaying the Parameter List. Notice that the X screen minimum is 30 
and the X screen range is 80 GDUs. If the X axis starts at 30 GDUs and is 80 GDUs long, 
then the X axis maximum point is at 1 1 GDUs. Remember, the total horizontal length of 
the screen is 1 30 GDUs. 

Notice also that the X data minimum is and the X data range is 1 8. Add them together 
and you obtain the maximum X value: 1 8. The Y data minimum is 45 and the Y data range 
is 30. So, we know our Y axis data range begins at 45 and is 30 units long. Add the two 
values together (45 + 30) and you have a Y maximum data value of 75. Create a graph 
(Figure 4-1 2) and verify these data ranges. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



75 



?e ■ 



65 ■ 



6e 



55 • 



50 




45 ' ' ...... 

8 2 4 6 8 16 12 14 16 18 

1940-30 



Figure 4-1 2. Y Only Data Plot with Normal Axes. 



4-34 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Return to the menu. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 

The screen displays the menu. We want to select SET X SCREEN POSITION. Selection 6 
is our choice. 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Since we're compressing this axis, we may as well leave the minimum axis point alone 
and push in the other end. We enter the same minimum value we had before. 

Enter 30 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 60 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 4-35 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Figure 4-1 3 shows what we've done. 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 




Figure 4-1 3. Y Only Data Plot with Compressed X Axis. 

No question about it, even though the data and the axis numbers remain the same, this 
graph gives you the impression that the data changes are large. Go back to the Parameter 
List and notice the difference this modification made to list statistics. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Parameter List. Notice the changes in the X axis listings. The 
screen minimum is 30 and the screen range is 30. Add them to get the screen maximum: 
60. The data minimum is 0, and the data range is 20. When the graph changed size, the 
System automatically changed tic intervals. 



436 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Let's move the graph to the right side of the screen. We'll make the X axis minimum 90 
GDUs and the X axis maximum 1 20 GDUs. This still gives us a 30 GDU X axis length. 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



Enter 90 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 1 20 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 
Figure 4-1 4 shows the graph which appears on the display screen. 




Figure 4-14. Y Only Data Plot with Compressed X Axis Shifted Right. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1 979 



4-37 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Suppose we go the other way now and make the data changes appear a insignificant as 
possible. To do this, we'll lengthen the X axis and shorten the Y axis. First the X axis . . . 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 1 20 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. We've now completed stretching the X axis; compressing 
the Y axis is next. The menu reveals that menu item 7 is what we're looking for. Check the 
Parameter List and see what the Y axis configuration is. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Parameter List. Notice that our Y axis Screen Minimum is 1 and 
that our Y axis Screen Range is 80 — these are the default parameters. Let's compress 
the Y axis down to 1 and 30; that gives us a 40 unit Y axis that significantly de- 
emphasizes the change in data. 

Enter 7 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 30 
Press RETURN 

4-38 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Figure 4-1 5 shows the contrast to our earlier example (Figure 4-1 3). 




Figure 4-1 5. Y Only Oata Plot with Compressed Y Axis. 

If you extend the X axis too close to the left or right screen border, or if you move the Y 
axis too close to the bottom or top of the display screen, you can get some graph 
aberrations. You may discover your graph data chopped off or the axis index numbers 
misplaced. The default configuration for the X and Y axes is adequate for most graphing 
requirements. If you do customize the location of your graph on the screen, remember to 
allow sufficient room horizontally and vertically for the display of axis index numbers. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FfEV A, APR 1979 



4-39 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Return the X and Y screen locations to their starting values. In GDUs they were: X axis 30 
and 110; Y axis 10 and 90. 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



Enter 30 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 110 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 7 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 90 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



4-40 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Now that we've returned the X and the Y axes to their former location, are we back to our 
original graph? Nope! When we compressed the Y axis during the demonstrations, the 
System autoscaled the X axis from the original data range of to 1 8 to a new range of 
to 20. The Y axis went through a configuration change, too. Originally, the Y axis data 
range went from 45 to 75. Now it starts at 40 and ends at 80. Let's graph the data and 
look at the data ranges (Figure 4-16). Then we'll go to the Parameter List and observe 
data range parameters. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 




8 10 12 14 16 18 28 



Figure 4-16. Original Y Only Data Plot with Changed Data Range Parameters. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Parameter List. 

To achieve X and Y data minimum and data range values like our original graph, we "zero 
out "the minimum and maximum data values with menu selections 8 and 9 — SET X DATA 
RANGE and SET Y DATA RANGE. This causes the Graphic System to autoscale again to 
restore the graph to its original configuration. 

Enter 8 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APR 1979 



4-41 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X DATA MINIMUM ? 



Enter 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 9 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER Y DATA MINIMUM ? 



Enter 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



4-42 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Now, graph the data again. 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 




Figure 4-17. Original Y Only Data Plot. 

Figure 4-1 7 is our original graph. Go to the Parameter List and verify the data range and 
data range statistics. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Parameter List. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



4-43 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



CHANGING THE DATA RANGES 

X and Y data range parameters permit you to change the relationship of the axes to the 
plotted data. Menu items 8 and 9 are selected for these activities. We can do one of two 
things: dwarf the plotted data by making the axes data range much larger than the input 
data range, or "clip off" part of the data when we make the axes data range smaller than 
the input data range. 

Look at the menu and observe that item 8 is SET X DATA RANGE. 

Enter 8 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X DATA MINIMUM ? 

Enter 

Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 200 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. Notice that item 9 is SET Y DATA RANGE. 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y DATA MINIMUM ? 

Enter 

Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 100 
Press RETURN 



4-44 REV A. APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



108 



86 



6@ 



48 



28 



_i — _i 1 1 1» 



8 48 88 128 168 268 

1940-36 

Figure 4-1 8. Y Only Data Plot with Extreme Data Ranges. 

Figure 4-1 8 shows this example, which is extreme, but in-between values may apply to a 
situation you have. 

Return the graph to original default parameters by entering zeros at all four data range 
minimum and maximum points. 

Enter 8 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X DATA MINIMUM ? 



Enter 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APR 1979 



4-45 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 9 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER Y DATA MINIMUM ? 



Enter 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



75 r 




Figure 4-1 9. Original Y Only Data Plot. 

We have our familiar temperature graph back again (Figure 4-1 9). Could you have 
returned to these data range values by entering the original data range values instead of 
zeros? Certainly! This is just the easier way — no need to remember numbers. 



4-46 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



If the axes are assigned a smaller data range than that of our data input, data out of the 
established range is mot displayed. We'll chop off the Y data peaks and valleys by 
entering a new data range of 50 to 67. We'll demonstrate the same technique on the X 
axis by entering a new data range of 2 to 1 4. Look at the graph and see how much data 
will be eliminated by the cuts. We'll begin by going to menu item 8 and changing the X 
axis data range. 

Enter 8 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X DATA MINIMUM ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 14 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y DATA MINIMUM ? 

Enter 50 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 67 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 4-47 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Figure 4-20 shows the resulting graph. 




Figure 4-20. Y Only Data Plot with Clipped Data. 



Now, on your own, put the original temperature graph back on the display screen by doing 
the following: 

1 . Go to menu item 8, SET X DATA RANGE, and enter zeros for the minimum and 
maximum data ranges. 

2. Go to menu item 9, SET Y DATA RANGE, and enter zeros for the minimum and 
maximum data ranges. 

3. Go to menu item 2, DISPLAY DATA, and observe our basic graph and verify the 
changes. 

4. Return to the Y Only Data Plot Menu by pressing the M key followed by 
pressing the RETURN key. 



4-48 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



STOP 

The Y Only Data Plot Menu item 1 6 — STOP — terminates the program and returns you to 
the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. STOP is executed from the Y Only Data Plot 
Menu or other program locations where an "M" is a part of an entry statement. STOP 
takes you back to the Master Menu, all default conditions are reset, and Y input data is 
lost. 

Except for information and step-by-step instructions on how to store and retrieve data 
from an auxiliary data tape, you have completed the Y Only Data Plot instruction. Select 
item 1 6 from the Y Only Data Plot Menu to leave the Y Only Data Plot Program. 

Enter 16 
Press RETURN 



STORING DATA ON A MAGNETIC TAPE 

Using a magnetic tape to store PLOT 50 System Software program data is a time saver in 
some situations. It is advantageous to record data on an auxiliary magnetic tape when you 
have a sizable block of data that you intend to add to later, or when you have data that 
you plan to use as a base for "what if" projections. When you need the original data again, 
insert the data tape into the Graphic System and effortlessly place the recorded data into 
System memory. 

The next several paragraphs give a description of how to use an auxiliary data tape with 
the program. The procedure begins from a Graphic System initialized condition (System 
operational, but PLOT 50 System Software not enabled). Do not attempt to duplicate this 
step-by-step procedure until you have a data tape available. 

1 . Before you insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape into the System, select an 
auxiliary data tape that has sufficient room for your data. Ensure that the "write 
protector" arrow on the cartridge is turned opposite the SAFE mark (1 80° from 
SAFE). Insert the data tape into the System's magnetic tape slot. If it's an old 
tape, make a TLIST of the tape's contents (described in the PLOT 50 System 
Software General Information section) and locate the next available file. If it's a 
new tape, press the REWIND key to position the tape at its beginning. Find and 
mark a file (discussed in the PLOT 50 System Software General Information 
section), providing sufficient tape space to accommodate the data you intend to 
record. 

2. Remove the data tape from the tape slot and set the tape aside. 

3. Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape into the tape slot and progress to the 
YOnly Data Plot Menu. 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 4-49 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



4. Select menu item number 1, and enter your data from the keyboard. 

5. Return to the Y Only Data Plot Menu. 

We continue with a step-by-step procedure . . . 

Enter 15 
Press RETURN 

Screen: INSERT DATA TAPE AND ENTER FILE NUMBER ? 

Press the EJECT button and remove the PLOT 50 System Software Tape from the System. 
Insert the appropriate data tape into the tape slot. 

Enter (your marked file number) 
Pres RETURN 

Screen: DATA STORED 

INSERT SYSTEM TAPE AND PRESS RETURN ? 

Press the EJECT button and take the data tape out of the tape slot. You now have the data 
stored on your selected file. Put the PLOT 50 System Software Tape back into the 
System. 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Continue with your graphing activities. At a later time, when you wish to use the recorded 
data, start from the Y Only Data Plot Menu and do the following: 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

If you already entered data into the memory, the System will ask: 

Screen: DO YOU WISH TO ADD TO PREVIOUS DATA (Y or N) ? 

Press N 
Press RETURN 



4-50 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Y ONLY DATA PLOT 



Now, the routine is the same for everyone. 

Screen: DO YOU WISH TO USE THE KEYBOARD (Y or N) ? 

Press N 
Press RETURN 

Screen: TAPE PROCESSING (Y or N) ? 

Press Y 
Press RETURN 

Screen: INSERT DATA TAPE AND ENTER TAPE FILE # ? 

Press the EJECT button, take the PLOT 50 System Software Tape out of the System and 
insert the data tape into the tape slot. 

Enter (your file number) 
Press RETURN 

The System finds the file and loads the data into the System memory. 

Screen: INSERT SYSTEM TAPE AND REETURN ? 

Push the EJECT button, remove the data tape, and insert the PLOT 50 System Software 
Tape into the system. 

Press RETURN 

Verify the data entries by referring to the data list. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

That completes the procedure. Continue your graphing activities. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 4-51 



Section 5 



Page 

Introduction 5-1 

Operation Summary 5-1 

What is an X vs Y Data Plot? 5-5 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape 5-6 

Initializing the Graphic System 5-8 

Initializing the PLOT 50 System Software Tape 5-8 

Creating a Graph Using All Default Parameters 5-9 

Data Limitations 5-14 

Selecting Plot Symbols 5-14 

Changing Data 5-16 

Listing Data 5-17 

Adding Data 5-19 

Deleting Data 5-21 

Inserting Data 5-23 

Selecting Plot Modes 5-26 

Autoscaling 5-28 

Graphic Display Units 5-28 

Listing Parameters 5-28 

Changing the Shape of the Graph 5-30 

Changing the Data Ranges 5-39 

Graphing Negative Data 5-44 

STOP 5-45 

Storing Data on a Magnetic Tape 5-46 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S Rl-V A, APR 1 979 



Section 5 
X VS Y DATA PLOT 



INTRODUCTION 

If you are an experienced programmer, you have several options after reading this 
Introduction: read the Operation Summary, scan the text following the Operation 
Summary, or combine the two. If you're relatively new at this graphing business, read this 
Introduction, skip the Operation Summary for now, and begin studying the text that starts 
with "What is an X vs Y Data Plot?" Laler you may want to use the Operation Summary as 
a reference. 

In the X vs Y Data Plot text, we use one set of data for all demonstrations. Once that data 
is entered into the Graphic System and the program displays the X vs Y Data Plot Menu, 
you have reached a STOP/START point. These labeled STOP/START points are 
convenient places for you to stop studying and turn off the System, aware that you can 
reenter the text's running commentary at that location with the proper settings on the 
Graphic System for future demonstrations. We'll provide you with detailed instructions on 
how to use this study technique when we reach the first STOP/START point. 



OPERATION SUMMARY 

To initialize the Graphic System: (text: Initializing the Graphic System) 

1 . Refer to the Installation Appendix to verify that your power source is compatible 
with the line voltage of the Graphic System. 

2. Connect the power cord to the Graphic System and then to your power source. 

3. Turn ON the power switch located beneath the right-front corner of the unit. 

To begin the PLOT 50 System Software Programs: (text: Initializing the PLOT 50 System 
Software Tape) 

1 . Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape into the Graphic System. 

2. Press the AUTO LOAD key. 

3. The screen displays the PLOT 50 Master Menu. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 5-1 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



The X vs Y Data Plot Menu is used as a reference for this Operation Summary. Menu 
selections are listed following their menu item numbers. Text references are provided to 
guide you to a detailed explanation. 

1. ENTER DATA (text: Creating a Graph Using All Default Parameters) 

Data values are entered as X-Y pairs. The process of entering data is 
terminated by entering M as a data value. 

2. DISPLAY DATA (text: Creating a Graph Using All Default Parameters) 

This selection graphs the input data. The X-Y data is the only input required to 
create a graph. All other graph parameters can be established by the Graphic 
System. 

3. LIST DATA (text: Listing Data) 

A columnar list of input X-Y data with their corresponding data item numbers as 
displayed on the screen when this menu item is selected. 

4. LIST PARAMETERS (text: Listing Parameters) 

This menu selection presents a columnar list of selected or default condition 
graph values. They are . . . 

NUMBER OF 

POINTS: shows number of input data items. 

LINE CODE: displays the selected Plot Mode. 

SYMBOL 

CODE: gives the symbol selection. 

SCREEN 

MINIMUM: displays X and Y axes screen starting points in Graphic Display 
Units (GDUs). 

SCREEN 

RANGE: displays X and Y axes GDU lengths. 

DATA 

MINIMUM: shows X and Y axes minimum data values. 

DATA 

RANGE: displays X and Y axes data ranges. 

5-2 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



5. SET AUTOSCALE (text: Autoscaling) 

This menu item selects appropriate X and Y data ranges based on input data 
values. The System makes autoscale determinations simultaneously to a 
Display Data function (menu item 2). When the Set Autoscale menu item is 
selected, it returns your arbitrary data range selections to values that coincide 
with original default conditions, providing a Display Data menu selection follows 
the Set Autoscale menu entry. 

6. SET X SCREEN POSITION (text: Changing the Graph's Screen Position) 

This menu item sets the X axis horizontal length and position in GDUs on the 
130 GDU horizontal display screen surface. The default condition begins the 
axis at 30 GDUs and ends it at 1 1 GDUs, establishing an axis that is 80 GDUs 
long. 

7. SET Y SCREEN POSITION (text: Changing the Graph's Screen Position) 

This menu selection sets the Y axis vertical length and position in GDUs on the 
1 00 GCU vertical display screen surface. The default condition begins the axis 
at 1 GDUs and terminates il at 90 GDUs. This creates a Y axis 80 GDUs high. 

8. SET X DATA RANGE (text: Changing the Graph's Data Range) 

This menu item establishes minimum and maximum X axis data points. The 
default condition is a result of autoscaled X axis input data values. 

9. SET Y DATA RANGE (text: Changing the Graph's Data Range) 

This menu item establishes minimum and maximum Y axis data values. The 
default condition is a result of autoscaled Y axis input data values. 

10. SELECT PLOT MODE (text: Selecting Plot Modes) 

Two modes are available: an optional line plot and a default point plot. 

1 1 . SELECT SYMBOL (text: Selecting Plot Symbols) 

Here, you are offered a choice of five plot symbols: point, triangle, plus sign, 
square, and diamond, The point symbol is the default condition. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S HEVA.APR1979 5-3 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



1 2. INSERT DATA (text: Inserting Data) 

This menu item permits insertion of data into an X-Y data string already entered 
in the System's memory. Enter M as a data value to terminate the insert data 
routine. 

1 3. DELETE DATA (text: Deleting Data Inside the Data String) 

(text: Deleting Data at the end of a Data String) 

From this menu selection, you can delete data from an X-Y data string that has 
been entered into System memory. Enter M as a data value to terminate the 
delete-data routine. 

14. CHANGE DATA (text: Changing Data) 

This menu selection allows you to change one or more data values in a string of 
X-Y data previously entered into the System. An M is entered as a data value to 
terminate the data change routine. 

1 5. STORE DATA (text: Storing Data on a Magnetic Tape) 

Data that has already been entered into the System's memory can be stored on 
a separate magnetic tape for later data reentry. This selection is made after a 
data file has been marked on a separate magnetic tape (optional accessory). 

16. STOP (text: Stop) 

This selection takes you back to the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 
X-Y input data is lost when this menu item is selected, and all default 
conditions are enabled. 

In addition to the menu items above, the following topics in the text are brought to your 
attention. 

ADD DATA (text: Adding Data) 

To add X-Y data to the end of a previously entered data string, select menu item 
1 , ENTER DATA. Enter the data in response to the System's display screen 
queries. Terminate the add data routine by entering M as a data value. 

CORRECTING ERRORS (text: Plot 50 System Software General Information) 

(text: Creating a Graph Using ALL Default Parameters) 



5-4 REV A. APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



DEFINITION OF AN X-Y DATA PLOT (text: What is an X vs Y Data Plot?) 

GRAPHING NEGATIVE DATA (text: Graphing Negative Data) 

PLACEMENT OF X OR Y AXIS TOO CLOSE TO SCREEN EDGE (text: 
Changing the Graph's Screen Position) 

STOP/START POINTS (text: Introduction-this section) 

(text: Creating a Graph Using All Default Parameters) 



WHAT IS AN X VS Y DATA PLOT? 

An X vs Y Data Plot is positioned against two reference lines: an X axis horizontal line and 
a Y axis vertical line. 

X and Y axes are divided into segments by small lines called "tic marks." Numbers that 
label these tic marks are called "axis numbers." Figure 5-1 shows how they relate to a 
graph. 



58 
45 
40 
35 
38 
£5 
26 
15 
IS 



TIC MARK 



AXIS NUMBER 



j i > 



8 5 10 15 20 25 38 35 40 45 50 

1940-39 



Figure 5-1. Tic Marks and Axis Numbers. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1 979 



5-5 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



An X-Y Data Plot graphs the correlation between two sets of data. The data on either axis 
can be either "discrete" or "continuous." Discrete variables can have only a certain 
number of values. The number of members of your family, for example, is a discrete 
quantity. The "average" family may have 2.7 children, but your family 0, 1 , 2, 3, or some 
other whole number of children. The amount of money you carry is another discrete 
quantity. You may have $7.61, but not $7.61392. On the other hand, continuous variables 
can have any value at all, within specified limits. Your thermometer may measure any 
temperature between —40° F and +1 40° F, at least in principle. As another example, 
when you drive to work each morning, your distance from home varies continuously as 
you drive. 

An X vs Y Data Plot looks like this . . . 



and this 



ib n; ?a 48 ;» 



and even this 



te 9S :ae 



4» :<e e 



THE PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE TAPE 

Creating an X vs Y Data Plot on the Graphic System from scratch isn't hard, but it does 
require some programming expertise and a Graphic System operating agility that many 
users don't want to take the time to acquire— at least not at first. 

Using BASIC programs already stored on a magnetic tape to create X vs Y Data Plots 
offers two major advantages: 

1. It saves time. 

2. It assists the beginning programmer or the casual user and permits them to 
create graphs with a minimum of study. 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape programs the Graphic System to calculate most 
graph parameters automatically. In fact, you can create a professional looking X vs Y 
graph by doing nothing more than entering the raw data into the Graphic System. 



5-6 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



The parameters that the Graphic System automatically establishes for you are called 
"default values." These are system settings that are used unless you specify otherwise. 
Although the default values serve a variety of graphic situations, it is often advantageous 
to alter or "override" one or more of the default parameters to put a plot in a more 
appropriate setting. This can be done quickly and easily. By overriding default conditions, 
you can: 

1 . Move the X axis horizontally on the Graphic System display screen and make 
the axis length shorter or longer. 

2. Move the Y axis vertically on the display screen and make the axis length 
shorter or longer. 

3. Change the X axis data range 

4. Change the Y axis data range. 

5. Choose either a line or a point plot. 

6. Choose from five plot symbols. 

Don't feel uneasy if some of the terms we just used don't mean anything to you yet. This is 
an overview of topics that we'll be discussing thoroughly a little later. 

Now, let's create a graph on your Graphic System display screen. We'll go through the 
procedure together step-by-step, and we'll let the System do most of the work. After 
you've created your X vs Y Data Plot using all possible default values, we'll move the input 
data values around until you feel at ease making data changes. We'll add data to the end 
of your input, insert numbers in the middle of the data string, and delete some data values. 
Then we'll examine the default parameters and explore why you might want to override 
some of them from time to time. We'll ta\e your graph and, by nullifying default values, 
change its appearance and move the graph to different screen locations. All this 
manipulation emphasizes how versatile the Graphic System software package is, and how 
easy it is for you to use the program to complete your graphing requirements. 

During the text demonstrations, you'll be entering data into the Graphic System from the 
keyboard. At the conclusion of the X vs Y Data Plot discussion we'll explore the procedure 
used when you wish to store system data on magnetic tape for later retrieval. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 5-7 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



INITIALIZING THE GRAPHIC SYSTEM 

If this is the first time the Graphic System is turned on in your area, refer to the 
Installation Appendix to verify that your power source is compatible with the line voltage 
of the Graphic System. 

Turn ON the System by pressing the right side of the power switch located under the 
right-front corner of the unit (Figure 5-2). The four green indicator lights on the front panel 
(Figure 4-3) will turn on, but only the power light remains on. It stays on as long as power 
is applied to the System. 



HOME 
PAGE" 



■•ggg mmffi fflpMfi iifi> 



POWER 
SWITCH 




INDICATOR 
LIGHTS 



AUTO LOAD 



1940-208 



Figure 5-2. Power Switch, Indicator Lights, HOME/PAGE Key, and AUTO LOAD Key. 



Press the HOME/PAGE key. The screen will be blank except for a small blinking rectangle 
(cursor) in the upper-left corner of the screen. 



INITIALIZING THE PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE TAPE 

Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. Refer to the PLOT 50 System Software 
General Information section for specific instructions. Press the AUTO LOAD key (Figure 
5-2). This rewinds the magnetic tape, locates the first program on the tape, loads the 
program into the Graphic System memory, and begins the first program — in this case, a 
program directory (menu). 

When you press the AUTO LOAD key, the BUSY and I/O (Input/Output) indicator lights 
turn on (Figure 5-2). The System makes a series of sounds that normally occur whenever 
there is a tape movement in the system. Figure 5-3 shows the PLOT 50 System Software 
Master Menu that appears after the tape stops. 



5-8 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATORS 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



** PLOT 3d: SYSTEH SOFTWARE ** 

PROGRAM TITLE 

GRAPHIC SUPPORT PROGRAMS 

1 V Only Data Plot 

2 X vs Y l>ata Plot 

3 Function Plot 

4 Histosnn Plot 

5 GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 

6 SOFTWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM 

7 FIRMWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM <4851 onl«> 

8 SPECIAL 4054 FEATURES (4834 only) 

ENTER THE PROGRAM NUMBER YOU WANT: ,„„,,, 
Figure 5-3. PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 

CREATING A GRAPH USING ALL DEFAULT VALUES 

The Master Menu is a seven-item list ol the programs stored on the PLOT 50 System 
Software Tape. Notice that the X vs Y Data Plot— the program module we're looking for— is 
listed as item number 2. 

At the bottom of the menu is a single sentence we call an "entry statement." It is followed 
by a blinking question mark. When a blinking question mark appears, it means that the 
Graphic System is waiting for you to make a keyboard entry. 

To get to the X vs Y Data Plot Program, make your selection by pressing the 2 key on the 
numeric pad. 

In this manual, when you are expected to press a number key on the keyboard, the 
expression "Enter" will be printed, followed by an appropriate number or numbers and 
their separators. The direction will appear like this: 

Enter 2 

Go ahead and press the 2 key. The 2 appears on the screen and is entered into the line 
buffer, a small temporary memory. Notice that the blinking question mark now appears to 
the right of the displayed 2. The System is waiting for you to continue your entry or 
complete your entry by pressing the RE TURN key. Whenever you are expected to press 
any key other than a number key, the expression will be "Press" followed by the name of 
the key. You're expected to press the RETURN key now, so we say . . . 

P'ess RETURN 



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X VS Y DATA PLOT 



5-10 



You can type data repeatedly on the keyboard, but until you press the RETURN key, the 
System will not act on your entry. When the RETURN key is pressed, the number 2 is sent 
from the line buffer to the System. 

Now the line buffer is empty again; it will begin filling up as you enter additional data. It 
will hold 72 characters before it refuses to accept any more. While data is in the line 
buffer, you can change it over and over again if you like. That's what it's there for— to give 
you an editing capability. But once you press that RETURN key, you're committed. 

In effect, by pressing the 2 key and the RETURN key, you have just said to the the 
System, "Locate the X vs Y Data Plot Program on the System Software Tape and display 
the X vs Y Data Plot Menu." After the tape-movement noises stop the Master Menu is 
erased from the screen, and the X vs Y Data Plot Menu shown in Figure 5-4 appears: 

X vs Y DATA PLOT 

1 ENTER DATA 

2 DISPLAY DATA 

3 LIST DATA 

4 LIST PARAMETERS 

5 SET AUTOSCALE 

6 SET X SCREEN POSITION 
? SET Y SCREEN POSITION 

8 SET X DATA RANGE 

9 SET Y DATA RANGE 
18 SELECT PLOT MODE 

11 SELECT SYMBOL 

12 INSERT DATA 

13 DELETE DATA 

14 CHANGE DATA 

15 STORE DATA 

16 STOP 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU 

1940-44 



Figure 5-4. X vs Y Data Plot Menu. 

Notice the wording of the entry statement at the bottom of the menu. This means that 
while you are using the X vs Y Data Plot Program and this entry statement appears on the 
display screen, you can return to the X vs Y Data Plot Menu by pressing the M key 
followed by pressing the RETURN key. It also means that you can bypass the menu and 
go from one menu selection to another provided you know the appropriate menu selection 
number to enter. The menu is just a table of contents that's put in the program for your 
convenience. Use it when you need it; bypass it when you don't need it. 

Examine the X vs Y Data Plot Menu for the proper selection. We want to enter data, so 
menu item 1 is our selection. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



REV A. APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



A question appears on the screen: 

DO YOU WANT TO USE THE KEYBOARD (Y or N) ? 

You do, so . . . 

Press Y 
Press RETURN 

The screen erases, and the following appears: 

ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY 
X(1) ? 

The Graphic System is ready to receive the first X axis value from the keyboard. To get 
data for these demonstrations, we queried a few people about their age and how many 
hours of television they watched each week. The fourteen people we included in the 
"survey" formed too small a sampling to reveal any significant information about TV 
viewing. Here's the dala. 

HOURS IN 
AGE VIEWING TIME 

48 21 

28 10 

26 5 

21 13 

27 17 

36 27 

24 25 

31 14 

20 5 

35 11 

34 12 

33 20 

24 16 

25 15 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 5-11 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



The System is still waiting for us to enter the first data item. The procedure is to enter the 
X axis data value, press RETURN, enter the Y data value, press RETURN, and so forth. 
The System keeps everything in order by indicating the data item number for the next 
data entry and whether it is to be an X axis or a Y axis value. Let's look at the screen 
again: 

ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY 
X(1)? 

The display is saying, "Enter your first item of X axis data." We want to plot age on the X 
axis, so our first entry is 48. 

Enter 48 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY 

X(1) 48 
Y(1) ? 

The display screen retains the first entry and how asks for Y axis data. 

Enter 21 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the latest entry and asks for the second X axis data value. Enter the 
appropriate value (28) and continue entering data until you have entered all the survey 
information. If you should make a mistake but haven't pressed the RETURN key, 
corrections are easy. The data is still in the line buffer and subject to edit. You can 
backspace, delete, add, or whatever. If you make a mistake and don't see it until after you 
have pressed the RETURN key, remember the mistake and its location (data item 
number), but continue your data entries. After you have completed all data entries and 
returned to the X vs Y Data Plot Menu, you can select another menu item that allows you 
to change data. We'll be studying that procedure later. 

When you have entered all the data, the last screen line will be . . . 

X(15) ? 



5-12 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Whenever you're working with data (entering it, adding to it, changing it, or making 
insertions in it), the Graphic System has no way of knowing how many data items you're 
working with. It continues asking you for data until you tell it to stop. You do that by 
entering an M. This entry terminates the data routine and returns the program to the X vs 
Y Data Plot Menu. It is appropriate to do that now. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 

The screen reflects the M entry, erases, and displays the X vs Y Data Plot Menu. Believe it 
or not, you've done everything you need to do to create a graph! Select menu item 2, 
DISPLAY DATA, and see for yourself. 



28 

26 

24 

22 

20 

18 

16 

14 

12 

18 

8 

6 

4 



28 



25 



38 



35 



46 



45 



58 

1940-45 



We just passed the first STOP/START point. Let's discuss how to resume using the text 
and continue with the demonstrations if you terminate your studies at one of these 
STOP/START points. We assume you turned off the Graphic System at the STOP/START 
point. Here's how to reenter: 

1. Initialize the Graphic System. 

2. Initialize the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. This displays the PLOT 50 
System Software Master Menu. 

3. Select menu item 1 . This displays the X vs Y Data Plot Menu. 



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5-13 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



4. Select menu item 1 —ENTER DATA— and enter the 1 4 sets of X-Y survey data. 

5. Return to the Xvs Y Data Plot Menu. 

6. Resume your studies. 

DATA LIMITATIONS 

The standard 4051 Graphic System has an 8K byte Random Access Memory (RAM). 
Optional add-on RAM in 8K increments is available. If you have a standard 4051 Graphic 
System (8K RAM), you can enter a maximum of 50 data pairs into this X vs Y data Plot 
Program. When the 4051 Graphic System is provided with options that give you more than 
8K RAM, or when you are using a 4052 Graphic System or a 4054 Graphic System, you 
can enter 1 00 sets of X-Y data pairs for this program. In either case, when you enter the 
maximum data set, the screen displays the following: 

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF VALUES IS 1 00 (or 50 if that's appropriate) 
ENTER NEW MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

The graph you've just created is using a point to mark the X vs Y plot values you entered 
into the System. This is the default condition; unless you specify otherwise, this is the 
graph symbol that will display your data. The points aren't suitable for all applications, so 
several other plot symbols are available. Let's go back to the menu and find the proper 
menu selection. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 

SELECTING PLOT SYMBOLS 

The screen displays the Symbol Menu. Notice that item 1 1 , SELECT SYMBOL, is the 
proper entry. 

Enter 11 
Press RETURN 



5-14 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Screen: 1 POINT 

2 TRIANGLE 

3 PLUS SIGN 

4 SQUARE 

5 DIAMOND 

SELECT NUMBER AND PRESS RETURN ? 

Let's experiment with the triangle symbol and see what it looks like on a graph. 

Enter 2 

Press RETJRN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NLMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

We return to the Symbol Menu and find the proper menu selection to draw the graph 
shown in Figure 5-5. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



28 

26 
24 

22 
20 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
8 
6 



i A 



i i- 



28 25 ;!0 35 40 



45 50 

1940-46 



Figure 5-5. X vs Y Data Plot with Triangle Plot Symbols. 



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REV A, APR 1979 



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X VS Y DATA PLOT 



There, that's easier to see! We'll ignore the other symbol possibilities for now, but we'll 
incorporate them in subsequent graphs. Let's return to our default symbol (point) and go 
back to the X vs Y Data Plot Menu. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Symbol Menu. The point symbol is 1 . 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 

CHANGING DATA 

You may want to change some of the input data you entered into the system for any of 
several reasons. Perhaps you made an error. 

Perhaps you're working on a project where only one or two data points change while other 
graph points remain fixed; changing a few data values will be simpler than reentering the 
entire data string. 

Perhaps you want to visualize the impact of alternate sets of data into a statistical picture. 
These forecasting alternates are often entered into the System by changing part of the 
original data. 

You change data by selecting item 1 4 on the X vs Y Data Plot Menu. 

Enter 14 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED ? 

Let's pretend for a moment that the correct data for item 5 was an X of 38 and a Y of 2 
instead of the 27 and 1 7 data values now in memory. Here's how to make the change. 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

5-16 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Screen: CURRENT VALUE OF ITEM 5 is X 27 Y 1 7 

ENTER NEW X AND Y VALUES ? 

Enter 38, 2 
Press RETURN 

Or as an alternate entry: 

Enter 38 
Press RETURN 
Enter 2 
Press RETURN 

Either routine does it! 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED ? 

The graphic System assumes you have more data to be changed. You haven't; so it's 
necessary to notify the System by entering an M as a data value. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the X vs Y Data Plot Menu. 



LISTING DATA 

Let's verify the data change by looking at a very helpful reference — a listing of the data, 
menu item 3. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 5-17 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 









DATA LIST 




NUMBER 






X 


Y 


1 






46 


21 


2 






28 


18 


3 






26 


5 


4 






21 


13 


5 






38 


2 


6 






36 


27 


7 






24 


25 


8 






31 


14 


9 






28 


5 


la 






35 


11 


11 






34 


12 


12 






33 


20 


13 






24 


16 


14 






25 


15 


END OF 


LIST 








ENTER 1 


1ENU 


ITEM 


NUMBER OR M FOR 


HEW MENU 

1940-47 



Figure 5-6. Data List. 

Figure 5-6 shows that data item 5 reflects the change just entered into the System. Let's 
return the original values to the data string before we begin another topic. The menu 
selection is 14. 

Enter 14 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED ? 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

Screen: CURRENT VALUE OF ITEM 5 is X 32 Y 2 

ENTER NEW X AND Y VALUES ? 

Enter 27 
Press RETURN 
Enter 12 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED ? 

We must now terminate the data-change routine. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 



5-18 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



ADDING DATA 

It's easy to add data to the values you've entered into the Graphic System. Suppose we 
survey four more people and add this additional data into our survey results (this add-on 
data is fictitious): 

HOURS IN 
AGE VIEWING TIME 

5 1 

72 36 

12 19 

87 8 



Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DO YOU WISH TO ADD TO PREVIOUS DATA (Y or N) ? 

You do, so . . . 

Press Y 
Press RETURN 

The screen erases and displays the following: 

ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY 
X (15) ? 

The System automatically gives you the next available data item number to complete. 
Enter the new values in the conventioral manner and terminate the add-on data string by 
entering M as a data value. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the XvsY Data Plot Menu. Verify your new entries by listing the data 
as selected by menu item 3. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 5-19 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



The screen displays the data list containing 1 8 data sets of X-Y data. This new input 
alters our graph data parameters because we've added new minimum and maximum data 
values. Let's regraph the data (Figure 5-7) and use plus signs for point symbols. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The menu is displayed. The SELECT SYMBOL menu item is 1 1. 

Press 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Symbol Menu. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



You probably recall that the DISPLAY DATA selection is menu item 2. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



•»» 














35 










+ 




38 






+ 








25 






+ 








28 




+ 


+ 


+ 






15 
18 






+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ + 
+ 
+ 






+ 


5 






+ + 








8 


+ 













8 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 38 99 

1940-48 



Figure 5-7. X vs Y Data Plot with Plus Sign Plot Symbols. 



5-20 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Notice that our Y axis has been rescaled from previous 4 to 28 values to an expanded 
scale of to 40. Likewise, the X axis changes from the range of 20 to 50 to new range 
values of to 90. These changes are necesssary to accommodate the new data— and it's 
done automatically! 

We want to go back to our original data and the original graph parameters. To do this, we'l 
have to get rid of those four additional data items. And that brings us to our next topic. 

DELETING DATA 

You delete data by referring to data item numbers; you terminate the deletion routine by 
entering an M as a data value. When you delete data from within the data string, the data 
string "reforms itself" following the deletion. Right now, if you delete item 7 from our data 
string, all higher numbered items "shift down" one lower sequential number to fill the gap 
left by the deleted seventh item. Item 8 becomes item 7, item 9 becomes item 8, and so 
on. The "reformed" data string has 1 7 sets of data values without a data-item gap. 

When you want to delete data from either end of the data string, you delete the lowest 
unwanted data item number as many times are there are numbers to be deleted. In this 
situation, you eliminate item 1 5 four times. 

The deletion selection on the menu is item 1 3. Let's delete our four unwanted numbers 
and go back to our original survey data. 

Enter 13 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 15 
Press RETJRN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED X 5 Y 1 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 15 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 5-21 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Screen: VALUE DELETED X 72 Y 36 

ENTER THE NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 15 
Press RETURN 



Screen: VALUE DELETED: X 1 2 Y 19 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 1 5 
Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED: X 87 Y 8 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The M entry is necessary to discontinue the delete-data routine. The screen displays the 
menu. To return to our original graph configuration, we must select the point symbol. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the 5-item Symbol Menu. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 



5-22 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIEES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



INSERTING DATA 

Inserting data into a data string already entered in the Graphic System is easy to do. 
Assume that you inadvertently left out one survey sample (data regarding one individual), 
and you want to insert that data between data items 5 and 6. Let's go to our data list. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the data list. Notice that data item 5 has values of X 27 and Y 1 7. 
Data item 6 has values of X 36 and Y 27. Our insertion is for a 1 03 year old man who 
watches 63 hours of television a week We must first go back to the X vs Y Data Plot 
Menu to find the proper selection. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

Notice that selection 1 2 is the proper entry. 

Enter 12 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE PRECEDED ? 

We want to slip a data set between data items 5 and 6, so our input data will precede item 
6. 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER NEW X VALUE ? 

Enter 103 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER NEW Y VALUE ? 

Enter 63 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE PRECEDED ? 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S rev A. APR 19/9 5-23 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



To terminate the delete data routine, an M must be entered as a data value. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the X vs Y Data Plot Menu. Let's do four things; look at the data list to 
verify our insertion, return to the menu, select the diamond symbol, and plot a graph with 
the inserted data. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen shows the data list. Our insertion is data item 6. The data item that was 
previously item 6 is now moved up to item 7. It and all higher numbered data have been 
moved up one sequential number to make room for the insertion. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the X vs Y Data Plot menu. Make the SELECT SYMBOL entry. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen shows the five-item Symbol Menu. We want to use diamonds this time (F : igure 
5-8). 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



5-24 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



r« 








68 









58 








40 








30 









26 





O 




10 

a 









28 38 48 !8 68 78 88 90 186 118 

1940-49 

Figure 5-8. X vs Y Data Plot with Diamond Plot Symbols. 

Notice that our graph has new parameters because our 1 03 year old man extended our 
data range. Return to the standard survey data by deleting the insert. The deletion 
selection is number 13. 

Enter 13 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 



Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED: X 1 03 Y 63 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

Returning to the X vs Y Data Plot Menu discontinues the delete routine. Now, let's change 
back to the point symbol. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



5-25 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



The screen displays the Symbol Menu. We want item 1 . 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Press M 
Press Return 

This is a STOP/START point. 

SELECTING PLOT MODES 

You've probably noticed that we haven't been drawing lines between our plotted X vs Y 
data points. Unless the data has been previously sorted, or unless the data happens to be 
accumulated in a manner that has data on one axis moving in a sequential fashion, 
connecting lines between data points is a superfluous and confusing technique. Let's 
check it out. Observe that SELECT PLOT MODE is menu item 1 0. 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: 1 LINE PLOT MODE 

2 POINT PLOT MODE 
SELECT NUMBER AND PRESS RETURN 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Let's select item 2 and plot the graph shown in Figure 5-9. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



5-26 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 




Figure 5-9. X vs Y Data Plot in Line Plot Mode. 

It looks more like a sketch than it does, a graph. We are only using 1 4 data items; imagine 
the confusion if we had 45! But as we stated, when the data on one axis is in sequential 
order, you can use Line Plot Mode advantageously. Point Plot Mode is the default setting. 
Let's return to it. 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Plot Mode Menu. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Press M 
Press RETURN 



This is a STOP/START point. 



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527 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



AUTOSCALING 

When you put data into the Graphic System without specifying specific X and Y axes data 
ranges at the time you request a graph, the System established X and Y axes data ranges 
that include all input data. We call that automatic range determination "autoscaling." 
When we talk about data ranges for an X axis, for example, we're referring to the minimum 
to maximum data values that are plotted against the X axis. The X axis index numbers (the 
numbers that label the X axis tic marks) reflect those data range values. This range format 
applies to the Y axis also. 

If you put data into the Graphic System and immediately ask for an X vs Y data plot by 
selecting menu item 2, the System searches its memory to see if you gave it data-range 
instructions. If not, the System autoscales the data; that is, it scans the data and 
established minimum and maximum data ranges that include all data values. Remember, 
the System does not autoscale until just before the graph is created. 

So far, we have not specified any specific axis data ranges; so, all our graphs have been 
autoscaled. Later on in the text, when we manipulate data ranges, we may want to return 
the data ranges to values we presently have. To do that, we will select menu item 5 — SET 
AUTOSCALE. We will review autoscale information at that time. 



GRAPHIC DISPLAY UNITS 

The Graphic System display screen is internally divided into 1 00 vertical and 1 30 
horizontal units called Graphic Display Units (GDUs). We'll be working with these units to 
relocate the position of the graph on the screen. 



LISTING PARAMETERS 

When you select item 4 - LIST PARAMETERS - on the X vs Y Data Plot Menu, you have 
picked a handy reference chart that will assist you in many plotting situations. Let's take 
a few moments to describe the parameter list headings as they appear on the screen 
(Figure 5-10). 



5-28 REV A, APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



PARAMETER LIST 
NUMBER OF POINTS 
LINE CODE 2 
SYMBOL CODE 1 



14 





X 


Y' 


SCREEN MINIMUM 
SCREEN RANGE 
DATA MINIMUM 
DATA RANGE 


38 

88 
20 

30 


ie 

80 

4 
24 



ENTER MENU ITEM HUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU 



1940-51 



Figure 5-10. Parameter List Headings. 



Here is an explanation of the Parameter List headings: 



NUMBER OF 

POINTS: This is the number of data item sets you enter. 

LINE CODE: The same as Plot Mode. The default value is Point Plot Mode (plot menu 
item 2). 



SYMBOL 
CODE: 



This refers to X vs Y Data Plot Menu item 1 1 . The default value is Point 
Symbol Mode (symbol menu item 1). 



SCREEN 
MINIMUM: 



This indicates the Graphic Display Unit (GDU) point where the X axis 
begins. When in a default condition, the X axis begins 30 GDUs 
horizontally from the left side of the screen, and the Y axis begins 1 
GDUs vertically from the bottom of the screen. These default conditions 
provide a screen graph ng location suitable for most applications. 



SCREEN 
RANGE: 



These entries indicate Ihe length of the X and Y axes in GDUs. If you add 
this value to the screen minimum, you obtain the axis termination point 
expressed in GDUs (screen maximum). 



DATA 
MINIMUM: 



The data minimum is the X and Y axes data minimums established by you, 
or it is the autoscaled data minimums selected by the Graphic System. 



DATA 
RANGE: 



This figure shows the total range value on each axis. Add this figure to the 
data minimum and the result is the maximum data range value. 



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REV A, APR 1979 



5-29 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



If you have reached this text point by reentering the text from the last STOP/START point, 
the Data Range and Data Minimum columns on your Parameter List will contain zeroes 
instead of the numbers shown in the parameter illustration. The Graphic System does not 
autoscale until a graph is created. Since the last STOP/START point occurred 
subsequent to the last graphing demonstration, since you haven't been told to establish 
data ranges, and since the system hasn't been forced to autoscale, there just aren't any 
data ranges yet. 



CHANGING THE SHAPE OF THE GRAPH 

Shortening or lengthening the X and Y axes changes the impact of your graph. If we 
stretch the X axis and compress the Y axis, we tend to "flatten out" the graph and de- 
emphasize differences in the data. Conversely, if we lengthen the Y axis and shorten the 
X axis, we make minor differences in the data appear more pronounced. 

Since a point plot is the more common configuration in X vs Y data plots, that is the mode 
we'll use for these examples. 

Your Graphic System should be displaying menu item 4 - LIST PARAMETERS. Notice 
that the X screen minimum is 30 and the X screen range is 80. The horizontal display 
screen is 1 30 GDUs long. If the X axis starts at 30 GDUs and is 80 GDUs long, then the X 
axis terminates at 1 1 GDUs. 

Notice also that the X data minimum is 20 and the X data range is 30. This means that the 
data starts with a value of 20 and has 30 units of data on the X axis. Add these values 
together (20 + 30) and you obtain the maximum data range for the X axis: 50. 

We analyze Y axis data the same way. The Y data minimum is 4, and the data range is 24. 
So we know our minimum Y axis data is 4 and that there are 24 units of data on the Y 
axis. When we add the two value together, we compute the maximum Y axis data value of 
28 (24 + 4). 

Let's take our familiar survey graph, add the square symbol for plotting point emphasis, 
and see how the graph seems to tell a different story when we push the X and Y axes 
around. We'll use extreme examples to dramatize the differences. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 



5-30 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



We'll begin by shortening the X axis to emphasize data differences. 

Let's get our square symbol first. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Symbol Menu. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

The menu item for changing the X axis screen position is number 6. 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Since we're compressing this axis, we'l leave the minimum X axis point (30) alone and 
push in the other end; so, we enter the same minimum value we presently have. 

Enter 30 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 



Here's where we make the change! 

Enter 60 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S MEVA.APR1979 5-31 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Figure 5-1 1 shows what the graph looks like. 




Figure 5-1 1 . X vs Y Data Plot with Compressed X Axis. 

No question about it, even though the data and the axis numbers remain the same, this 
graph leaves you with the impression that the Y data changes are large compared to the X 
data changes. Go back to the Parameter List and notice the difference this X axis 
modification makes. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

The Parameter List shows that the X axis screen minimum is 30 (where it was before) and 
the screen range is 30. Add these two values together to get the screen maximum (30 + 
30), which is the value we entered: 60. Other values on the list are unchanged. 



5-32 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Let's move the graph to the right side of the screen. We'll make the X axis minimum 90 
GDUs and the X axis maximum 1 20 GDUs — this still gives us our present 30 GDU X axis 
length. 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X SCREiEN MINIMUM ? 



Enter 90 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 120 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 




Figure 5-1 2. X vs Y Data Plot with Compressed X Axis Shifted Right. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APR 1979 



5-33 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



And there you are! 

Go to the Parameter List and observe the X axis entries for screen minimum and screen 
range. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

The entries should be self-explanatory. 

Suppose we go the other way now and the data changes appear as insignificant as 
possible. One way to do this is to lengthen the X axis and shorten the Y axis. First, the 
X axis . . . 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 120 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the X vs Y Data Plot Menu. We've just completed stretching an X axis 
line of 1 1 GDUs from a 1 GDU starting point on the screen to a terminating point at 1 20 
GDUs. Okay? Compressing the Y axis is next. The menu reveals that item 7 is what we're 
looking for. 

Now, let's return to the Parameter List to verify Y axis default values. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 



5-34 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



The screen displays the Parameter List. Notice that our Y axis screen minimum is 1 and 
our Y axis screen range is 80. These are default conditions. Let's shorten the Y axis and 
give it values of 1 and 30; that gives us a Y axis length of only 40 GDUs, a configuration 
that ought to de-emphasize the graph's data changes significantly. 

Enter 7 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 30 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



40 



28 



a 
a a 



d a 



28 22 24 26 28 38 32 34 36 38 48 42 44 46 48 58 



Figure 5-13. X vs Y Data Plot with Compressed Y Axis. 



4050 SERIES OF'ERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



5-35 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Figure 5-1 3 shows the contrast to our earlier example. 

If you put the X axis too close to the left or the right screen border, or if you establish the 
Y axis too close to the bottom or top of the display screen, you get graph aberrations. 
You'll find your graph data chopped off, the axis index numbers misplaced, or that the 
System goes into a "page full" condition repeatedly before completing the graph. 

The default condition for the location of the X and Y axes is adequate for most graphing 
requirements. If you do customize the screen location of your graph, remember to allow 
sufficient room horizontally and vertically for axes index numbers. 

Before we begin another topic, let's take time to return our graph to its original condition. 
The original X and Y screen locations in GDUs were X axis 30 and 1 1 0; Y axis 1 and 90. 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 30 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 110 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 7 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 90 
Press RETURN 



5-36 



REV A, APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Symbol Menu 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

We've returned the X and Y axes to their former configuration, and we've returned to the 
point symbol. Are we back to our original graph? No! When we compressed the Y axis 
during one of the demonstrations, the System autoscaled that axis to a new data minimum 
of and a data range maximum of 40 (the original values were 4 and 28). Let's go to the 
Parameter List and verify the present settings of and 40. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Parameter List. 

To obtain the Y axis data range values that we had on our original graph, we select menu 
item 5 - SET AUTOSCALE. 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

Screen: AUTOSCALED 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Now, let's see what the Parameter List shows: 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S =!EV A, APR 1 979 5-37 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



The screen displays the Parameter List. Notice that the X and Y axes data ranges are 
zero. Recall that autoscaling does not occur until the graphing function is requested. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



28 
26 

24 
22 
28 • 
1 

16 ■ 
14 
12 
18 

8 

6 

4 



28 



25 



38 



35 



48 



45 



59 

1940-55 



Figure 5-14. Original X vs Y Data Plot. 

Figure 5-1 4 shows our old friend, the original graph. Notice the proper index numbers. 
Now, let's go back to the Parameter List and see the results of the autoscaling. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

The Parameter List verifies that we have indeed returned to the original graph 
configuration. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 



5-38 



REV A.APR 1979 



4050 SERIEES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



CHANGING THE DATA RANGES 

X vs Y Data Plot Menu items 8 and 9 permit you to change the minimum to maximum data 
range of the X and Y axes. In autoscaling, the axes data ranges are set to just include all 
input data values. By customizing the axes data ranges, you can do one of two things: 
dwarf the plotted data by giving data ranges to the axes that significantly exceed the 
range of the input data, or "clip-off" part of the input data by making the axes data range 
smaller than the input data range. Let's; begin by increasing the X axis and the Y axis data 
ranges and observe the effect. Set X DATA RANGE is item 8. 

Enter 8 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X DATA MINIMUM ? 

Enter 

Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 200 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Menu item 9 is SET Y DATA RANGE. 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y DATA MINIMUM ? 

Enter 

Press RETURN 



Screen: MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 200 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S ^EV A. APR 1979 5-39 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Let's graph with a triangle symbol. The menu item for SELECT SYMBOL is 1 1 . 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Symbol Menu. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 





Enter 2 


Press RETURN 


298 




186 




166 




146 




126 




106 




86 




68 




48 




26 

6 


J i 1 1 — A. 



-J 1 1 



8 26 48 68 86 108 128 148 166 138 288 

1940-56 

Figure 5-1 5. X vs Y Data Plot with Extreme Data Ranges. 

Figure 5-1 5 shows this example, which is extreme, but in-between values may apply to an 
application you have. 



5-40 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIEiS OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



If the axes are established with a data range that has a smaller set of values than our 
input data, data values that fall out of the established range are not displayed. To 
demonstrate this, we'll begin with X axis, make data range changes, go to the Y axis, make 
data range changes; then display a gre ph. We'll stay with the triangle symbols to 
emphasize the plot points. Menu item 8 is SET X DATA RANGE. 

Enter 8 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X DATA MINIMUM ? 

Enter 22 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 45 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Now, we want menu item 9, SET Y DATA RANGE. 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y DATA MINIMUM ? 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 24 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Let's see what we've got! 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 5-41 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



24 
22 |. 

20 
18 
16 
14 
12 

Id 



22 24 26 28 39 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 

1940-57 

Figure 5-16. X vs Y Data Plot with Clipped Data. 

Compare Figure 5-1 6 with Figure 5-1 7. The graph in Figure 5-1 6 does not show all of the 
input values shown in Figure 5-1 7. By reducing X and Y data ranges, we have eliminated 
input data at both axes minimum and maximum data ranges, and we have changed index 
numbering along the axes. 



28 
26 
24 
22 
20 
18 
16 
14 
12 
19 
8 
6 



i A 



20 



25 



30 



35 



49 



45 59 

19-10-58 



Figure 5-1 7. Original X vs Y Data Plot with Triangle Plot Symbols. 



5-42 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



We do not have to go through a laborious routine to restore the graph to its original 
configuration; all we have to do is autcscale and change symbols. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Symbol Menu. 

Enter 1 

Press RETJRN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



The SET AUTOSOME menu selection is number 5. 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

Screen: AUTOSCALED 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 2 
Press Return 



28 r 

26 ■ 
24 . 
22 ■ 
20 ■ 
18 
IS 
14 
12 
18 

8 

6 

4 



28 



25 



38 



35 



40 



45 58 

1940-59 



Figure 5-1 8. Original X vs Y Data Plot. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



5-43 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Look familiar? 



Press M 
Press RETURN 



This is a STOP/START point. 



GRAPHING NEGATIVE DATA 

Unfortunately, our famous TV Viewing-Time Survey does not lend itself to negative data. 
Let's insert an arbitrary negative number into X and Y axes survey data so you can 
observe the graph configuration. 

Enter 1 2 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE PRECEDED ? 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER NEW X VALUE ? 

Enter -33 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER NEW Y VALUE ? 

Enter -14 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM TO BE PRECEDED ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The X vs Y Data Plot Menu was selected to terminate the insert data routine. Let's add 
diamond symbols to this graph. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 



5-44 



REV A. APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



The screen displays the Symbol Menu 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



38 
25 

20 
15 

10 

5 

I k 1 (- 

-5 

-10 



-15 



% 






Q O 



-t 1 1 1 



-40 -30 -20 -10 



19 20 36 49 50 

1940-60 



Figure 5-1 9. X vs. Y Data Plot with Negative Data. 



STOP 



X vs Y Data Plot Menu item 1 6 — STOP — terminates the program and returns you to the 
PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. STOP is executed from the X vs Y Data Plot 
Menu. It takes you back to the Master Menu, all default parameters are reset, and X axis 
and Y axis input data is lost. 

You have completed the X vs Y Data Plot instruction except for information and step-by- 
step instructions on how to store and retrieve data from an auxiliary tape. Go to the next 
paragraph and begin that instruction now, or implement the STOP menu selection that 
follows and leave the program. 

Enter 16 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



5-45 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



STORING DATA ON A MAGNETIC TAPE 

Using a magnetic tape to store PLOT 50 System Software program data is a time saver in 
some situations. It is advantageous to record data on an auxiliary magnetic tape when you 
have a large block of data that you intend to add to later, or when you have data that you 
plan to use as a base for "what if" projections. When you need the original data again, 
insert the data tape into the Graphic System and place the recorded data into System 
memory. 

The next several paragraphs give a description of how to use an auxiliary data tape with 
the program. The procedure begins from a Graphic System initialized condition (system 
operational, but PLOT 50 System Software not enabled). Do not attempt to duplicate this 
step-by-step procedure until you have a data tape available. 

1 . Before you insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape into the System, select an 
auxiliary data tape that has sufficient room for your data. Ensure that the "write 
protector" arrow on the cartridge is turned opposite the SAFE mark (1 80° from 
SAFE). Insert the data tape into the system's magnetic tape slot. If it's an old 
tape, make a TLIST of the tape's contents (described in the PLOT 50 System 
Software General Information section) and locate the next available file. If it's a 
new tape, press the REWIND key to position the tape at its beginning. Find and 
mark a file (discussed in the PLOT 50 System Software General Information 
section), providing sufficient tape space to accommodate the data you intend to 
record. 

2. Remove the data tape from the tape slot and set the tape aside. 

3. Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape into the tape slot and progress to the 
X vs Y Data Plot Menu. 

4. Select menu item number 1 , and enter your data from the keyboard. 

5. Return to the X vs Y Data Plot Menu. 

We continue with a step-by-step procedure . . . 

Enter 15 
Press RETURN 

Screen: INSERT DATA TAPE AND ENTER FILE NUMBER ? 



5-46 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Press the EJECT button and remove the PLOT 50 System Software Tape from the System. 
Insert the appropriate data tape into the tape slot. 

Enter (your marked file number) 
Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA STORED 

INSERT SYSTEM TAPE AND PRESS RETURN ? 

Press the EJECT button and take the data tape out at the tape slot. You now have the data 
stored on your selected file. Put the PLOT 50 System Software Tape back into the 
System. 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Continue with your graphing activities. At a later time, when you wish to use the recorded 
data, start from the X vs Y Data Plot Menu and do the following: 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

If you already entered data into the memory, the System will ask: 

Screen: DO YOU WISH TO ADD TO PREVIOUS DATA (Y or N) ? 

Press N 
Press RETURN 

Now, the routine is the same for everyone. 

Screen: DO YOU WISH TO USE THE KEYBOARD (Y or N) ? 

Press N 
Press RETURN 

Screen: TAPE PROCESSING (Y or N) ? 

Press Y 
Press RETURN 

Screen: INSERT DATA TAPE AND ENTER TAPE FILE # ? 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 5-47 



X VS Y DATA PLOT 



Press the EJECT button, take the PLOT 50 System Software Tape out of the System, and 
insert the data tape into the tape slot. 

Enter (your file number) 
Press RETURN 

The System finds the file and loads the data into the System memory. 

Screen: INSERT SYSTEM TAPE AND RETURN ? 

Push the EJECT button, remove the data tape, and insert the PLOT 50 System Software 
Tape into the System. 

Press RETURN 

Verify the data entries by referring to the data list. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

That completes the procedure. Continue your graphing activities. 



5-48 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Section 6 



Page 

Introduction 6 ~ 1 

Operation Summary °"^ 

What Is a Histogram? 6 " 5 

Initializing the Graphic System 6-9 

Initializing the PLOT 50 System Software Tape 6-10 

Creating a Histogram Using All Default Values 6-10 

Histogram Plot Limitations 6-119 

Changing Data 

Inserting Data 

Deleting Data Inside the Data String 6-25 

Adding Data 6 " 26 

Deleting Data at the End of a Data String 6-29 

Listing Parameters 6 " 30 

Changing the Graph's Screen Location 6-31 

STOP 6 " 41 

Storing Data on a Magnetic Tape 6-41 



6-21 
6-24 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S FfEV A, APR 1 979 



Section 6 
HISTOGRAM PLOT 



INTRODUCTION 

If you are an experienced programmer, you have several options after reading this 
Introduction: read the Operation Summary, scan the text following the Operation 
Summary, or combine the two. If you're relatively new at this graphing business, read this 
Introduction, skip the Operation Summary for now, and begin studying the text that starts 
with "What Is a Histogram ?" Later yoj may want to use the Operation Summary as a 
reference. 

In the Histogram text, we use one set of data for all demonstrations. Once that data is 
entered into the Graphic System and the program displays the Histogram Menu, you have 
reached a STOP/START point. These labeled STOP/START points are convenient places 
for you to stop studying and turn off the System, aware that you can reenter the text's 
running commentary at that location with the proper settings on the Graphic System for 
future demonstrations. We'll provide you with detailed instructions on how to use this 
study technique when we reach the first STOP/START point. 



40!50 SERIES OPERATOR'S FiEV A. APR 1979 6-1 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



OPERATION SUMMARY 

To initialize the Graphic System: (text: Initializing the Graphic System) 

1 . Refer to the Installation Index to verify that your power source is compatible 
with the line voltage of the Graphic System. 

2. Connect the power cord to the Graphic System and then to your power source. 

3. Turn ON the power switch located beneath the right-front corner of the unit. 

To begin the PLOT 50 System Software Programs: (text: Initializing the PLOT 50 System 
Software Tape) 

1 . Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. 

2. Press the AUTO LOAD key. 

3. The screen displays the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 

This Histogram Plot Menu is used as a reference for this Operation Summary. Menu 
selections are listed following their menu item numbers. Text references are provided to 
guide you to a detailed explanation. 

1 . ENTER DATA (text: Creating a Histogram Plot Using All Default Values) 
The data values are entered in sequence if sorted, or in any random fashion 
otherwise. The input data string is terminated by entering M as an input data 
value. 

2. DISPLAY HISTOGRAM (text: Creating a Histogram Plot Using All Default Values) 
This menu item graphs the input data in a percentage or a frequency 
distribution histogram. In this selection routine, you are queried regarding the 
graph's offset, cell width, and type of histogram to be created. Offset is the X 
axis data minimum. Cell width is the data grouping. The Graphic System PLOT 
50 System Software limits you to a maximum of 30 cells between the offset and 
the data maximum. It is computed as: data maximum minus offset divided by 
cell width. The result must not exceed 30. The System notifies you if you go 
over the cell limit. (If your System is a standard 4051 Graphic System (8K RAM) 
with Option 1, Data Communications Interface, your histogram cannot have 
more than 10 cells.) 

3. LIST DATA (text: Creating a Histogram Plot Using All Default Values) 

This menu selection presents a columnar list of the input data with sequential 
data item numbers. 

6-2 REV A. APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



4. LIST PARAMETERS (text: Listing Parameters) 

This menu selection presents a columnar list of selection or default condition 
graph values. They are . . . 

NUMBER 

OF POINTS: shows number of input data items. 

SCREEN 

MINIMUM: displays X and Y axes screen starting points in Graphic Display 
Units (GDUs}. 

SCREEN 

RANGE: displays X and Y axes GDU lengths. 

DATA 

MINIMUM: shows X and Y axes minimum data values. 



DATA 
RANGE: 



displays X and Y axes data ranges. 



SET X SCREEN POSITION (text: Changing the Graph's Screen Location) 
This menu item sets the X axis horizontal length and position in GDUs on the 
1 30 GDU horizontal screen surface. The default condition begins the axis at 30 
GDUs and ends it at 1 1 GDUs, establishing an axis that is 80 GDUs long. 

SET Y SCREEN POSITION (text: Changing the Graph's Screen Location) 
This menu selection sets the Y axis vertical length and position in GDUs on the 
1 00 GDU vertical display screen surface. The default condition begins the axis 
at 1 GDUs and terminates it at 90 GDUs. This creates a Y axis that is 80 GDUs 
high. 

INSERT DATA (text: Inserting Data) 

This menu item permits insertion of data into a sorted input data string that is 
already in the System's memory. Enter M as a data entry to terminate the insert 
data routine. 

DELETE DATA (text: Deleting Data Inside the Data String) 

(text: Deleting Data at the End of a Data String) 
From this menu selection, you can delete data from a data string that has been 
entered into the System's memory. At the end of a data string, delete the lowest 
unwanted item number as many times as you have unwanted data values. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



6-3 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



9. CHANGE DATA (text: Changing Data) 

This menu selection allows you to change one or more data values in a string of 
data previously entered into the System. An M is entered as a data value to 
terminate the data change routine. 

10. STORE DATA (text: Storing Data on a Magnetic Tape) 

Data that has already been entered into the System's memory can be stored on 
a separate magnetic tape for later data reentry. This menu selection is made 
after a data file has been marked on a separate magnetic tape (optional 
accessory). 

11. STOP (text: Stop) 

Menu item 1 1 is enabled from the Histogram Plot Menu. STOP takes you back 
to the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. All parameters are reset to their 
default values. All input data is lost. 

In addition to the preceding menu items, the following topics in the text are brought to 
your attention. 

ADDING DATA (text: Adding Data) 

To add data to the end of a previously entered data string, select menu item 1 , 
ENTER DATA. Enter the data in response to display screen queries. Terminate 
the add data routine by entering M as a data value. 

CORRECTING ERRORS (text: PLOT 50 System Software General Information) 

(text: Creating A Histogram Plot Using All Default Values) 

DEFINITION OF A HISTOGRAM PLOT (text: What Is a Histogram?) 

HISTOGRAM PLOT LIMITATIONS (text: Histogram Plot Limitations) 

PLACEMENT OF X OR Y AXES TOO CLOSE TO SCREEN EDGE 

(text: Changing the Graph's Screen Position) 

STOP/START POINTS (text: Introduction - this section) 

(text: Creating a Histogram Plot Using All Default Values) 



6-4 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



WHAT IS A HISTOGRAM ? 

A Histogram or Column Frequency Diagram is a bar graph that shows the number of times 
data values are grouped into arbitrary data ranges. Histograms show the frequency 
distribution or percentage distribution of data. They are a popular statistical tool with a 
variety of applications in business, education, and science. One educational application 
familiar to all of us is when a histogram is used as an analytical tool for grading students. 

If a number of students are given a test where the possible score covers a to 1 00 point 
range, the number of students achieving a score within the 60 to 70 grade range becomes 
the frequency of that 1 0-point data range. The data range — sometimes called a class 
interval or cell — is an arbitrrary boundary. A graphed columnar presentation of student 
test scores arranged in data-range ce Is is a histogram. It might look like Figure 6-1 . 



18 


























16 












14 












12 














ie 














8 














6 
4 




























2 




















9 


























5 


8 


6 





1 


9 


8 





9 





IE 


9 


1940-61 



Figure 6-1. A Histogram. 

Histograms are constructed by erecting vertical lines at the limits of the class intervals. 
When you close off the top of the class lines, a rectangle or cell is formed. The area of 
each rectangle represents that cell's Irequency. If all cells are of equal width, the height of 
a rectangle is proportional to the rectangle's area. When that's true, you can forget about 
the areas of the rectangles and just use cell height for evaluation. 

All that sounds complicated — much more complicated than it really is. All the histograms 
we create will have equal cell widths; so we evaluate them by their height. We will create 
a small histogram now, so you can see how everything fits together. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



6-5 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Let's construct a simple histogram from the following data: 

There are six students in a history class. They achieve the following scores in a 
weekly quiz that has a scoring range of to 1 00: 62, 71 , 74, 78, 83, and 97. 

First, we plot the scores on a horizontal baseline called the X axis. For the purpose of this 
histogram, we could label the line or axis from to 1 00, but since our data doesn't start 
until we reach a test score of 62, we begin our axis with a score of 60. We call that 
starting point the "offset." Although we've arbitrarily put the offset at 60, we could just as 
easily have established the offset at 50 or even 40. 

At five-number intervals along the X axis, we draw a small vertical line through the axis. 
These small indicators are called "tic marks," and the numbers that identify their values 
are "axis numbers." From the beginning of the horizontal X axis (the 60 offset point), we 
draw a vertical line called the Y axis. This axis will be set off with tic marks, too. We label 
the Y axis tics with Y axis numbers ranging from through 3. Figure 6-2 shows what it 
looks like so far. 



3 r 




TIC MARK 



86 85 38 95 




AXIS NUMBER 



Figure 6-2. Tic Marks and Axis Numbers. 

Suppose we group student scores in cells that are five test scores wide. The first cell 
includes student scores from 60 through 64.99. The height of that cell is plotted against 
the Y axis. There is one student with a test score that falls within that data range, so the 
cell would have a height of 1 on the Y axis. The other cells would be formed in the same 
manner, and the final result would be a histogram that looks like Figure 6-3. 



6-6 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 






68 63 70 75 80 85 99 93 108 

1940-63 

Figure 6-3. Histogram of Test Scores with Cell Width = 5. 

If we decide that the data is more meaningful plotted in cell widths that are 1 score 
points wide, we end up with the histogram configuration shown in Figure 6-4. 



2 ■ 



68 



79 



80 



90 180 

1940-64 



Figure 6-4. Histogram of Test Scores with Cell Width = 10. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



3EV A, APR 1979 



6-7 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Which one of these two graphs is the right one? They both are. The choice of cell widths 
is based on the distribution of the data and what divisions of that data (cell widths) are 
meaningful to you. 

As you can see, a histogram is a graph that provides you with additional information about 
data, and it can help you interpret that data more intelligently. 

Creating a histogram on paper is time consuming and requires artistic talent. Creating a 
histogram on the Graphic System display screen from scratch isn't hard, doesn't take any 
artistic talent, is relatively fast, and provides great graphing flexibility. But it does require 
some programming expertise and a Graphic System operating agility that many users 
don't want to take the time to acquire — at least not at first. 

Using BASIC programs already stored on a magnetic tape to create a histogram offers two 
major advantages: 

1. It saves time. 

2. It permits the beginning programmer or the casual user to create histograms 
with a minimum of study. 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape programs the Graphic System to calculate most 
graph parameters automatically. You are required to input only: 

1 . The data to be plotted. 

2. The offset. 

3. The cell width. 

4. A choice between a percentage histogram and a frequency distribution 
histogram. 

That's all it takes to create professional quality histograms on the display screen. And it 
can be done quickly, because the Graphic System automatically determines most graph 
parameters for you. We call these parameters "default conditions" or "default values." 

Although the defaults serve a variety of graphic situations, it is often advantageous to 
alter or "override" one or more default conditions to put a plot in a more appropriate 
setting. 



6-8 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Now, it's time for you to create a histogram on the Graphic System display screen. We'll 
go through the procedure together step-by-step, and we'll let the machine do most of the 
work. After you've created your histogram using all possible default conditions, we'll 
examine those conditions and explore why you might want to override some of them from 
time to time. 

First, we want to move the input data aiound until you feel at ease making data changes. 
We'll add data to the end of your input, insert numbers in the middle of the data string, and 
delete numbers. Then, we'll take your graph and, by nullifying default values, change its 
appearance. All this manipulation will emphasize how versatile the Graphic System 
software package is and how easy it will be for you to use the Histogram Plot Program to 
complete your graphing requirements. 

During the text demonstrations, you'll be entering data into the Graphic System from the 
keyboard. At the conclusion of the histogram discussion, we'll explore the procedure used 
when you wish to store data on magnetic tape for later retrieval. 

INITIALIZING THE GRAPHIC SYSTEM 

If this is the first time the Graphic System is turned on in your area, refer to the 
Installation Appendix to verify that your power source is compatible with the line voltage 
of the Graphic System. 

Turn ON the System by pressing the right side of the power switch located under the 
right-front corner of the unit (Figure 6-5). The four green indicator lights on the front panel 
(Figure 6-5) will turn on, but only the POWER light remains on. It stays on as long as 
power is applied to the System. 



HOME 
PAGE\L 



I ! 




1 1 wvtmmi^z $$$%.„ 

l[ - - ____ A\ 




INDICATOR 
LIGHTS 



AUTO LOAD 



POWER 
SWITCH 



Figure 6-5. Power Switch, Indicator Lights, HOME/PAGE Key, and AUTO LOAD Key. 

Press the HOME/PAGE": key. The screen will be blank except for a small blinking rectangle 
(cursor) in the upper-left corner of the screen. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



6-9 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



INITIALIZING THE PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE TAPE 

Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. Refer to the PLOT 50 System Software 
General Information section for specific instructions. Press the AUTO LOAD key (Figure 6- 
5). This rewinds the magnetic tape, locates the first ASCII program on the tape, loads the 
program into the Graphic System Random Access Memory (RAM), and begins execution 
— in this case, by displaying a program directory (menu). 

When you press the AUTO LOAD key, the BUSY and I/O (Input/Output) indicator lights 
(Figure 6-5) turn on. The System makes a series of sounds that normally occur whenever 
there is tape movement in the System. Figure 6-6 shows the PLOT 50 System Software 
Master Menu that appears after the tape stops: 

** PLOT 38: SYSTEM SOFTWARE ** 

PROGRAM TITLE 

GRAPHIC SUPPORT PROGRAMS 

1 V Only Data Plot 

2 X vs Y Data Plot 

3 Function Plot 

4 Histogran Plot 

3 GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 

6 SOFTWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM 

7 FIRMWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM (4051 only) 

8 SPECIAL 4854 FEATURES (4854 only) 

ENTER THE PROGRAM NUMBER YOU WANT: „ 40209 

Figure 6-6. PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 

CREATING A HISTOGRAM PLOT USING ALL DEFAULT 
VALUES 

The Master Menu is a seven-item program directory. Notice that the Histogram Plot — the 
program module we're looking for — is listed as item number 4. 

At the bottom of the menu is a single sentence we call an "entry statement." It is followed 
by a blinking question mark. When a blinking question mark appears, it means that the 
Graphic System is waiting for you to make a keyboard entry. 

To get to the Histogram Plot Program, press the 4 key on the numeric pad. From now on in 
this manual, when you are expected to press a number on the keyboard, the expression 
"Enter" appears, followed by the appropriate number, like this . . . 

Enter 4 

6-10 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



When you enter 4, it appears on the display screen and is entered into the line buffer, a 
small temporary memory. Notice that the blinking question mark now appears to the right 
of the display 4. The System is waiting for you to continue your entry or complete your 
entry by pressing the RETURN key. When you are expected to press any key other than a 
number key, the expression will be "Press" followed by the name of the key. You're 
expected to use the RETURN key now, so we say . . . 

Press RETURN 

Even though you enter data on the keyboard, the System does not act on your entries 
until you press the RETURN key. When you pressed the RETURN key just now, the 
number 4 was sent from the line buffer into the System memory. Now, the line buffer is 
empty. It will begin filling up as you enter additional data. It will hold 72 characters before 
it's full and refuses to accept any more. While data is in the line buffer, you can change it 
over and over again if you like. But once you press the RETURN key, you're committed! 

In effect, by pressing the 4 key and the RETURN key, you have just said to the System, 
"Locate the Histogram Plot Program on the System Software Tape and display the 
Histogram Plot menu." After the tape-movement noises stop, the Master Menu is erased 
from the screen, and the Histogram Plot Menu shown in Figure 6-7 appears: 







HISTOGRAM 


PLOT 




1 


ENTER DATA 








2 


DISPLAY HISTOGRAM 






3 


LIST DATA 








4 


LIST PARAMETERS 






3 


SET X SCREEN 


POSITION 






6 


SET Y SCREEN 


POSITION 






? 


INSERT DATA 








8 


DELETE DATA 








9 


CHANGE DATA 








te 


STORE DATA 








11 


STOP 








ENTER MENU ITEM 1 


NUMBER OR M 


FOR 1 


HEW MENU 










1940-68 



Figure 6-7. Histogram Plot Menu. 

Notice the wording of the entry statement at the bottom of the menu. It means that once 
you leave the Histogram Plot and go to any menu selection, whenever you see this entry 
statement on the display screen, you can return to the Histogram Plot Menu by pressing 
the M key followed by pressing the RETURN key. It also means that you can bypass the 
menu and go from one menu selection to another provided you know the appropriate 
menu selection number to enter. The menu is just a table of contents that's put in the 
program for your convenience. Use it when you need it; bypass it when you don't. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1 979 6-11 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Examine the Histogram Plot Menu for the proper selection. We want to enter data, so 
menu item 1 is our selection. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

A question appears on the screen . . . 

DO YOU WANT TO USE THE KEYBOARD (Y or N) ? 

You do, so . . . 

Press Y 
Press RETURN 

The screen erases and the following appears: 

ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY 
1 ? 

Since almost everyone can relate to a school classroom environment, we will use student 
test scores for our demonstration data. A community college was the source for the 
following 26 student scores on a test that had a possible scoring range of through 1 00 
points: 



1. 


76 


2. 


96 


3. 


73 


4. 


76 


5. 


98 


6. 


78 


7. 


79 


8. 


51 


9. 


75 



10. 75 



11. 


74 


12. 


73 


13. 


62 


14. 


87 


15. 


68 


16. 


77 


17. 


84 


18. 


76 


19. 


75 


20. 


72 



21. 


79 


22. 


70 


23. 


77 


24. 


92 


25. 


72 


26. 


75 



Enter the first test score. 



Enter 76 
Press RETURN 



6-12 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



The System responds to the entry and the screen looks like this: 

ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY 

1 76 

2 ? 

The System is asking for the second data entry. 

Enter 96 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays your second entry and asks for a third. Continue in the same manner 
until you have entered the 26 scores. II you should make a mistake but haven't pressed 
the RETURN key, corrections are easy. The data is still in the line buffer and subject to 
edit. You can backspace, delete, add, cr whatever. If you make a mistake and don't realize 
it until after you have pressed the RETURN key, remember the mistake and its location, 
but continue your data entries. After you have completed all data entries and returned to 
the Histogram Plot Menu, you can select another menu item that will allow you to change 
data. We'll study that procedure later. 

When you have entered all the data, the screen's last two entries will look like this: 

26 75 

27 ? 

Whenever you're working with data (entering it, adding to it, changing it, deleting it, or 
making insertions in it) the Graphic System has no way of knowing how many data items 
you're working with. It continues asking you for data until you tell it to stop. You do that by 
entering an M as the next data item. This terminates the data routine and returns the 
program to the Histogram Plot Menu. It is appropriate to do that now. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen reflects the M entry, erases, and displays the Histogram Plot Menu. 

This is a STOP/START point. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S FiEV A, APR 1979 6-13 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



We have just passed the first STOP/START point. Let's discuss how you reenter the text 
and continue with the demonstrations if you terminate your studies at one of these 
STOP/START locations. We assume your text exit included turning off the Graphic 
System. Here's how to reenter: 

1. Initialize the Graphic System 

2. Initialize the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. This displays the PLOT 50 
System Software Master Menu. 

3. Select menu item 4. This displays the Histogram Plot Menu. 

4. Select item 1 and enter the 26 scores. 

5. Return to the Histogram Plot Menu. 

6. Resume your studies at the appropriate text point. 

Now, back to the creation of our graph. Choose menu item 2 — DISPLAY HISTOGRAM. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

The 2 appears on the screen following the entry statement at the bottom of the menu. In 
addition, the minimum and maximum data ranges are displayed with a request for offset 
and cell-width inputs as follows: 

Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

The System has studied our input data and displays minimum and maximum data values. 
As you recall from our earlier discussion of a simple six-item histogram, an offset is the 
minimum value we plot on the X axis. The cell width is the size (data range) of the data 
categories or cells. Since we have a minimum value of 51 , let's make our offset 50, and 
arbitrarily pick 5 for our cell width. Make the entry this way . . . 

Enter 50,5 
Press RETURN 



6-14 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATORS 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



An alternate way of making this entry is . . . 

Enter 50 
Press RET URN 
Enter 5 
Press RET URN 

Although either entry technique will work, we'll utilize the first format throughout this text. 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Let's look at the frequency distribution first (Figure 6-8). 





ENTER 2 
















Press RETURN 


18 




16 




14 




12 








ie 








8 








6 


► 








4 










2 
















e 

5 


















e ee ;-e 38 98 lee ne 
























1940-69 



Figure 6-8. Frequency Distribution Histogram. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APR 1979 



6-15 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Congratulations! That wasn't so hard, was it? Notice that scores are graphed in 
increments starting from the offset value of 50. This means that the first cell includes all 
scores from 50 through 54.99. When read against the Y axis index numbers, the height of 
the cells indicates how many students got a test score in the cell's data range. Would you 
like to see the same data on a percentage basis? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

Enter 50, 5 
Press RETURN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



78 r 



68 ■ 



50 • 



49 • 



38 • 



28 



18 



58 68 78 



88 98 188 118 

1940-70 



Figure 6-9. Percentage Histogram with Cell Width = 5. 



6-16 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



The histogram still has the test scores divided into cell widths of 5; but this time, the 
height of the cells represents the percentage of the total test scores the cells represent. 
That lonely cell on the left side that represents the test scores between 50 and 55 has 
one score in it. If you evaluate the cell s height against the Y axis index numbers, you can 
see that its height is slightly under 4% (actually 3.846%). 

About now you probably want to know when to use the percentage histogram and when to 
use the frequency distribution histogram. It depends on the type of data you're dealing 
with; it depends on what you want the histogram to say; it depends on whether the people 
interpreting the histogram tend to think in numbers or in percentages. 

Of course, a percentage histogram can be misleading unless you know how many data 
samples are involved. You could say, "Twenty-five percent of the class failed the test." 
This could be a very accurate statement about the test results of a class of 4 people. That 
statement may have an entirely different impact than, "One person failed the test." 

A histogram is a graphing device to help you clarify data. Use the histogram you think is 
most appropriate for the data and for the circumstances. 

To simplify this series of histogram demonstrations, we will focus on a display of 
frequency distribution histograms. Our selection does not mean to imply that percentage 
histograms might not be an equally appropriate way of interpreting various text situations. 
We will ask you — on your own — to roplot some text frequency distribution histograms 
as percentage histograms. That way you can make your own comparisons about the 
effectiveness of one histogram against the other. 

So far, we've been using a cell width of 5 score points. Let's see what the same data looks 
like in 10-point cells. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

Enter 50, 10 
Press RETJRN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 6-17 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



25 














28 




15 








18 








5 














ft 












1 



58 



68 



78 



88 



98 



lee ne 

1940-71 



Figure 6-10. Percentage Histogram with Cell Width = 10. 

Figure 6-1 looks different, doesn't it? Notice that the wider cells close up the "data gap" 
that existed in the 5-point cell width. Now, using the same offset of 50, and the same cell 
width of 1 0, create a percentage histogram. 

After you've made your percentage histogram, let's go back to the Histogram Plot Menu. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 



6-18 



REV B.APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



HISTOGRAM PLOT LIMITATIONS 

There are two Histogram Plot Program limitations. First, you cannot enter more than 1 00 
data values. When you enter the 1 00th data item, the screen automatically displays the 
following: 

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF VALUES IS 1 00 

ENTER NEW MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

The second Histogram Plot Program limitation is a more subtle one. You cannot create a 
histogram with more than 30 cells. 1 It's computed this way: 

MAXIMUM DATA VALUE minus OFFSET must not equal more than 30 

divided by CELL WIDTH 

Let's attempt to create a histogram with more than 30 cells. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

If we attempt to create a histogram with an offset of 50 (the offset we've been using) and a 
cell width of 1 , would this histogram have more than 30 cells? Let's compute it. 

MAXIMUM DATE VALUE (98) minus OFFSET (50) equals 48 
divided by CELL WIDTH (1) 

This histogram would indeed have more than 30 cells, and it cannot be created on the 
Graphic System. Let's attempt to do it anyway! 

Enter 50, 1 
Press RETURN 

Screen: TOO MANY CELLS CREIATED 

DATA MINIMUM 51 
DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 



1 If your System is a standard 4051 Graphic System (8K RAM) with Option 1 (Data Communications 
Interface), your histogram cannot have more than 10 cells. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV B. APR 1979 6-19 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



So you see, you don't really need to use the formula if you don't want to. The Graphic 
System always tells you if you're trying to make a histogram with too many cells; then it 
gives you another opportunity to change the graph's configuration. 

The formula makes it obvious that the placement of the offset is a critical factor in the 
design of your histogram. If you place the offset at and try to make a histogram with a 
cell width of 2, the System will not take it. It is apparent then that the closer the offset is to 
the minimum data value, the more histogram design freedom you have. 

Let's see what our data looks like in cell widths of 7.5. Will that histogram configuration 
be over our 30 cell limitation? Let's find out (Figure 6-11). 

Enter 50, 7.5. 
Press RETURN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 





Enter 2 


















Press RETURN 






22 








28 








18 








16 








14 


• 










12 












18 












8 


■ 










6 


• 










4 












2 































1 - 






5 


8 68 78 


88 98 


188 118 


















1940212 



Figure 6-1 1. Frequency Distribution Histogram with Cell Width = 7.5. 



6-20 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIEES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



After you've made your own percentage histogram plot of the data, using the same cell 
width, return to the Histogram Plot Menu. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 

CHANGING DATA 

Sometimes you may want to change data because you make a mistake entering data 
values and don't realize it until after you press the RETURN key. 

Or maybe you're working on a project where one or two data points change while others 
remain fixed. Retaining the old data and changing one or two new data values is more 
expedient than reentering the entire data string. 

Or maybe you are forecasting or playing "what if" games with statistics. By changing 
data, you can project alternatives without having to reenter a complicated total data input. 

Now that we've indicated a few possible applications for this feature, let's find out how to 
use it. Notice that CHANGE DATA is menu item 9, and that LIST DATA is menu item 3. 
Let's look at the data first and decide what we want to change. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

Data item 1 is 75. Suppose we change that to a score of 33. 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

We bypassed the menu because we knew the selection we wanted. 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 6-21 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Screen: CURRENT VALUE OF ITEM 10 IS 75 

CHANGE TO ? 

Enter 33 
Press RETURN 

The screen indicates your selection. Then on a separate line it asks: 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED? 

The Graphic System has to be ready to accept more than one data change. You must 
enter an M as a data value to stop the change data routine. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

Let's make a Histogram Plot of the data with the changed value. Because we added a 
value below the smallest number on our data string, it is necessary to lower the offset 
value. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA MINIMUM 33 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

Enter 30, 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



6-22 



REV A, APR 1.979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Figure 6-1 2 shows the frequency distribution histogram of this changed data. Using the 
same cell width and offset, make a percentage histogram of the data. 



20 



15 



19 







30 40 50 €0 70 80 90 100 110 

1940 213 



Figure 6-1 2. Frequency Distribution Histogram with Changed Data. 

Now, let's return the original score of 75. We want to use CHANGE DATA, menu item 9. 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED ? 



Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: CURRENT VALUE OF ITEM 1 IS 33 

CHANGE TO ? 

Enter 75 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



6-23 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE CHANGED ? 

To stop the change data routine, we must enter M as a data value. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Histogram Plot Menu. 

This is a STOP/START point. 



INSERTING DATA 

If the input data in the System's memory is not sorted, additional data may be put in the 
data string at any location because data positioning is not important. It is usually 
convenient to put add-on data at the end of the data string. The procedure for doing this is 
discussed in the Adding Data section. 

If you wish to insert data into a sorted data string that is already in the Graphic System 
memory, the procedure is easy. Assume that between data items 9 and 1 we 
inadvertently left out a test score of 55. You discover the error and want to insert the data 
value. First, let's look at the data list. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

Notice that data item numbers 9 and 1 both have a value of 75. We are going to put a 
value of 55 between those two numbers. That means that the 55 will be listed as data item 
1 0, and all numbers that follow will be redesignated one sequential number higher than 
they were before. Let's try it out. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The Histogram Plot Menu is displayed. Notice that INSERT DATA is menu item 7. 

Enter 7 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE PRECEDED ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



6-24 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Screen: ENTER NEW VALUE ? 

Enter 55 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE PRECEDED ? 

We terminate the insert data routine by entering an M as a data value. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Histogram Plot Menu. Let's verify our insert and see what 
happened to the rest of the data by examining the data list. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the data list. Notice that the 55 is sandwiched between the two 75 
data values. Notice also that data values after 55 on the listing have shifted to a data item 
position that is one higher than before 

Okay, we have it in there; how are we going to get the 55 out? It's simple, and it takes us 
to our next topic. 

DELETING DATA INSIDE THE DATA STRING 

We'll demonstrate the delete procedure by taking the 55 out of the data string. We know 
that the unwanted number is data item 10. Let's go to the Histogram Plot Menu and find 
the delete selection. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. Menu item 8 is DELETE DATA. 

Enter 8 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APF=I 1979 6-25 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Screen: VALUE DELETED 55 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Again, the Graphic System must anticipate that more than one value is to be deleted. We 
must enter an M as a data value to terminate the delete routine. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. Go to the data list and observe what occurred after a 
deletion. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the data listing. 

When a deletion occurs inside a data string, data values with a higher data index number 
than the deleted value shift down one lower index number to fill the gap left by the 
deletion. 

Thus far, we've been discussing deletions from the middle of the data string. We'll defer 
studying the procedure for deleting data from the end of the data string for a few moments 
while we discuss how to add data to the end of a data string. After we cover that topic, a 
demonstration of how to delete data from the end of a data string will be a natural 
follow- up. 



ADDING DATA 

You can add to data you've already entered into the System memory at any time. The 
Graphic System accommodates you by displaying the next available data item number. 

For the purposes of this demonstration, we'll assume that our test has a possible high 
score of 1 60, and that we have just received the scores of the four top students. The 
scores are: 1 1 5, 1 37, 1 43, and 1 49. We want to add these results to our other data. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Histogram Plot Menu. Notice that there is no ADD DATA 
selection. You add data by using ENTER DATA, menu item 1 . 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

6-26 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Screen: DO YOU WISH TO ADD TO PREVIOUS DATA (Y or N) ? 

Press Y 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER M TO DISCONTINUE DATA ENTRY 
27 ? 

Enter 115 
Press RETURN 

Screen: 27 115 

28 ? 

Unless your System is a standard 405! Graphic System (8K RAM) with Option 1 (Data 
Communications Interface), enter the last three scores yourself, using the same 
procedure. If you have a standard 4051 with Option 1 , continue without entering the 
additional three scores. 

Now, we'll discontinue data entries by entering an M as a data value; we'll verify the 
addition of the data by looking at the data list; and finally, we'll construct a histogram for 
the total data. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the data list. Observe the additional values. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

If nothing happens when you press the RETURN key, you may have a "page full" 
condition. When this occurs the System remembers what you enter, but it is not displayed 
because there is no room on the screen. If the screen is full, there will be a blinking F in 
the upper left-hand corner of the display screen. If that's true, press the PAGE key and 
continue. 

Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 149 

ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S HEVA.APR1979 6-27 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Enter 50, 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE, (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



JB 




















25 






28 






15 










18 










5 










8 


r~ 










i — i 


r— 







48 



68 



38 



188 



128 



148 168 

1940-74 



A frequency distribution histogram of your data appears on the screen. Now, why don't 
you create a percentage histogram of the data by yourself using the same offset and cell 
width? 

Let's return to the menu. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Histogram Plot Menu. 
This is a STOP/START point. 



6-28 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



DELETING DATA AT THE END OF A DATA STRING 

Since we want to return to our original data, we will delete the data we just put on the end 
of our data string. 

Delete the lowest unwanted data item number as many times as there are numbers to be 
deleted. In this instance, 27 is the lowest data item number to be deleted. To eliminate 27, 
28, 29, and 30, delete 27 four times. When deleting unwanted data values from the low 
end of the data string, delete item number 1 as many times as you have unwanted values. 

There are other deletion methods, but they are more complicated and a little bit tricky, too. 
Let's settle for the foolproof method described above and eliminate our four items of 
unwanted data. 

Enter 8 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 



Enter 27 
Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED 1 1 5 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 27 
Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED 137 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 27 
Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED 1 43 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 

Enter 27 
Press RETURN 

Screen: VALUE DELETED 1 49 

ENTER ITEM NUMBER TO BE DELETED ? 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



UEVA, APR 1979 



6-29 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



It is necessary to enter an M at this time to terminate the delete data routine. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Histogram Plot Menu. 

Now, on your own, make a frequency distribution histogram using an offset of 50 and a 
cell width of 5. Return to the Histogram Plot Menu. 

This is a STOP/START point. 

LISTING PARAMETERS 

We divide the Graphic System display screen into 1 00 vertical and 1 30 horizontal units 
called Graphic Display Units (GDUs). We'll be working with these units when we relocate 
the graph on the display screen. 

When you select menu item 4 — LIST PARAMETERS — you have picked out a valuable 
reference chart that will assist you in many plotting situations. Let's take a few moments 
to describe the parameter listings as they appear on the screen (Figure 6-1 3). 

PARAMETER LIST 
NUMBER OF POINTS 26 







X 


.... 


■Y- 


SCREEN MINIMUM 


39 


19 




SCREEN RANGE 


89 


99 




DATA 


MINIMUM 


49 


9 




DATA 


RANGE 


129 


39 





ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEN MENU 



Figure 6-1 3. Parameter List Headings. 



Here is an explanation of the Parameter List headings: 

NUMBER OF 

POINTS: This refers to the number of data items you enter. 



6-30 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATORS 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



SCREEN 
MINIMUM: 



This indicates the Graphic Display Unit where the X axis begins. When the 
X axis screen minimum is in a default condition, the X axis begins 30 
GDUs horizontally from the left side of the screen. In a default condition, 
the Y axis begins 1 GDUs vertically from the bottom of the screen. These 
default conditions provide a screen graphing location suitable for most 
situations. 



SCREEN 
RANGE: 



DATA 
MINIMUM: 



These entries indicate the length of the X and Y axes in GDUs. If you add 
this value to the screen minimum, you obtain the end of the axis line 
expressed in GDUs. 



On the X axis, the data minimum is the location of the offset. On the Y axis, 
the data minimum is established by the Graphic System; it is normally 
zero. 



DATA 
RANGE: 



This is the total data value of the axis. If you add this figure to the data 
minimum, the result is the maximum data value. 



We'll reinforce these definitions with specific examples in the next few paragraphs. So 
don't feel uneasy if they are not yet clear to you. 

CHANGING THE GRAPH'S SCREEN LOCATION 

Shortening and lengthening the X and Y axes changes the impact of your histogram. If we 
stretch the X axis and compress the Y axis, we tend to "flatten out" the graph and de- 
emphasize differences in the data. Conversely, if we lengthen the Y axis and shorten the 
X axis, we make minor differences in the data appear more pronounced. 

Because of their bar-graph configuration, histograms do not lend themselves to this type 
of dramatization as much as Y Only Data Plots do, for example, but it can be done. In 
conjunction with this demonstration of axes compression and expansion, we'll move the 
histogram to different screen sectors. We will show extreme configuration changes for 
emphasis. 

The Histogram Plot Program's X and Y axes default screen locations will probably fulfill 
95% of your histogram graphing requirements. These histogram screen placement 
techniques give you the added operational versatility needed to cope with the other 5%. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



6-31 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Before we begin moving the graph around, let's establish where it is now. Looking at the 
Screen Minimum on the Parameter List, we see that the X axis begins at 30 GDUs. The X 
axis screen range is 80; that is, it is 80 GDUs long. Add the 30 and the 80 and you have 
1 1 GDUs. This is the screen maximum — the GDU point where the X axis ends. The data 
minimum is 50, where we arbitrarily put the offset. The Data Range is 60. If we add the 60 
to our data minimum, we get a data Maximum of 1 1 0, which is the highest index number 
on the X axis. 

Notice that the Y axis screen minimum is 1 and the Y axis screen range is 80. When 
added together they equal 90, which is the termination point of the axis in GDUs. The Y 
Data Minimum is and Y Data Range is 1 8. Both of those values were chosen by the 
System in response to your data input. 

Now, we know where we are! Let's move the histogram to the right side of the screen, and 
at the same time, let's compress the X axis. Figure 6-1 4 shows how this graphs the data. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START point. 

Notice that menu item 5 sets the X screen position, and that menu item 6 performs a 
similar function for the Y axis. We will make our X axis 30 GDUs long and position it from 
the 90 to the 1 20 GDU screen unit. 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 90 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 1 20 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



6-32 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

Enter 50, 5 
Press RETURN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETJRN 




Figure 6-1 4. Histogram with Compressed X Axis Shifted Right. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HEV A.APR 1979 



6-33 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



To put the histogram in the upper-right corner (Figure 6-1 5), reduce the Y axis to a 30 
GDU line; that is, have it begin at 65 and end at 95 GDUs. Remember, the menu selection 
for Y axis screen positioning is 6. 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 65 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 95 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

Enter 50, 5 
Press RETURN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Now, we'll go to the left side of the screen, and return to a normal Y axis. 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



6-34 REV A, APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 




1940-77 



Screen: 



Figure 6-1 5. Histogram with Compressed X and Y Axes. 
MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 90 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 5 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APF1 1979 



635 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Enter 30 
Press RETURN 

We have both axes changed to our new location and configuration. Let's graph it. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

Enter 50, 5 
Press RETURN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



18 

16 

14 

12 

18 

8 

6 

4 

2 

e 



i 



1 



58 188 158 



1940-78 



6-36 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIELS OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Now let's go to menu item 4 and look at the parameter listing. Compare the listing to the 
graph and see how the numbers verify graph parameters. 

We'll do one last manipulation of histogram size and screen location. This time we'll 
expand the X axis across the screen while compressing the Y axis. This tends to de- 
emphasize data differences. We'll run the X axis from 1 to 1 20 GDUs, and we'll 
compress the Y axis into a 20 GDU data range established by going to a 1 to 30 Y axis 
screen location. 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X SCREiEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 1 20 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 1 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 30 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S lEV A, APR 1 979 6-37 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

Enter 50, 5 
Press RETURN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAPH (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 




1940-79 



Figure 6-1 6. Histogram with Expanded X Axis and Compressed Y Axis. 

Figure 6-16 shows an exaggerated example, to be sure, but some in-between parameters 
may fit a requirement of yours someday. 

Let's return to our standard graph. Our preset parameters are: Y axis 1 to 90 GDUs, and 
X axis 30 to 110 GDUs. 



6-38 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Enter 6 

Press RETURN 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Screen: 



Enter 90 
Press RETURN 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 5 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



Enter 30 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Screen: 



Enter 110 
Press RETURN 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 2 

Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA MINIMUM 51 

DATA MAXIMUM 98 
ENTER (OFFSET, CELL WIDTH) ? 

Enter 50, & 
Press RETURN 

Screen: SELECT TYPE OF HISTOGRAM (1 ) PERCENTAGE (2) FREQUENCY 

DISTRIBUTION ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



PEV A, APR 1979 



639 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



18 
16 ■ 

14 
12 
10 

8 

6 ■ 

4 ■ 

2 







58 



66 



98 



30 



100 110 

1940-80 



Here we are, back to our standard graph. Now, go to the LIST PARAMETERS selection on 
the menu — item 4 — and observe that our numbers have returned to where they were 
before we started moving things around. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Parameter List. 

If you extend the X axis too close to the left or right screen border, or if you move the Y 
axis too close to the bottom or top of the display screen, you can get some graph 
aberrations. Your graphed data may be "chopped off" or the axis index numbers may be 
misplaced. Remember to allow sufficient room both horizontally and vertically for the 
display of the axes index numbers, and you won't have these problems. Let's go back to 
the Histogram Plot Menu. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

This is a STOP/START POINT. 



6-40 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



STOP 

The Histogram Plot Menu item 1 1 — STOP — terminates the program and returns you to 
the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. STOP is executed from the Histogram Plot 
Menu. STOP resets all default conditions, and X and Y input data is lost. 

You have completed the Histogram Plot instruction except for information and step-by- 
step instructions on how to store and retrieve data from an auxiliary magnetic tape. Go to 
the next paragraph and begin that instruction now, or implement the STOP menu 
selection that follows and leave the program. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 



STORING DATA ON A MAGNETIC TAPE 

Using a magnetic tape to store PLOT 50 System Software program data is a time saver in 
some situations. It is advantageous to record data on an auxiliary magnetic tape when you 
have a sizable block of data that you intend to add to later, or when you have data that 
you plan to use as a base for "what if" projections. When you need the original data again, 
insert the data tape into the Graphic System and effortlessly place recorded data into 
System memory. 

The next several paragraphs give a description of how to use a data tape with the 
program. The procedure begins from e. Graphic System initialized condition (System 
operational, but PLOT 50 System Software not loaded). Do not attempt to duplicate this 
step-by-step procedure until you have a data tape available. 

1. Before you insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape into the System, select an 
auxiliary data tape that has sufficient room for your data. Ensure that the "write 
protector" arrow on the cartridge is turned opposite the SAFE mark (1 80° from 
SAFE). Insert the data tape into the System's magnetic tape slot. If it's an old 
tape, make a TLIST of the tape's contents (described in the PLOT 50 System 
Software General Information section), and locate the next available file. If it's a 
new tape, press the REWIND key to position the tape at its beginning. Find and 
mark a file (discussed in the PLOT 50 System Software General Information 
section), providing sufficient tape space to accommodate the data you intend to 
record. 

2. Remove the data tape from the tape slot and set the tape aside. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 6-41 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



3. Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape into the tape slot and progress to the 
Histogram Plot Menu. 

4. Select menu item number 1 , and enter your data from the keyboard. 

5. Return to the Histogram Plot Menu. 

We continue with a step-by-step procedure . . . 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

Screen: INSERT DATA TAPE AND ENTER FILE NUMBER ? 

Press the EJECT button and remove the PLOT 50 System Software Tape from the System. 
Insert the appropriate data tape into the tape slot. 

Enter (your marked file number) 
Press RETURN 

Screen: DATA STORED 

INSERT SYSTEM TAPE AND PRESS RETURN ? 

Press the EJECT button and take the tape out of the tape slot. You now have the data 
stored on your selected file. Put the PLOT 50 System Software Tape back into the tape 
slot. 

Press RETURN 

Continue with your graphing activities. At a later time, when you wish to use the recorded 
data, start from the Histogram Plot Menu and do the following: 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

If you have already entered data into the memory, the System will ask: 

Screen: DO YOU WISH TO ADD TO PREVIOUS DATA (Y or N) ? 

Press N 
Press RETURN 

Now, the routine is the same for everyone. 



6-42 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HISTOGRAM PLOT 



Screen: DO YOU WISH TO USE THE KEYBOARD (Y or N) ? 

Press N 
Press RETURN 

Screen: TAPE PROCESSING (Y or N) ? 

Press Y 
Press RETURN 

Screen: INSERT DATA TAPE AND ENTER TAPE FILE ? 

Press the EJECT button, take the PLOT 50 System Software tape out of the System, and 
insert the data tape into the tape slot. 

Enter (your file number) 
Press RETURN 

The System finds the file and loads the data into the System memory. 

Screen: INSERT SYSTEM TAPE AND RETURN ? 

Push the EJECT button, remove the data tape, and insert the PLOT 50 System Software 
Tape into the System. 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Verify the data entries by referring to the data list. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

That completes the procedure. Continue your graphing activities. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S @ APR 1979 6-43 



Section 7 



Page 

Introduction 7-1 

Operation Summary 7-1 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape 7-5 

Function Plot Text Summary 7-6 

Initializing the Graphic System 7-6 

Initializing the PLOT 50 System Softweire Tape 7-7 

Graphing the First Single-Variable Function 7-7 

STOP 7-13 

Graphing the Second Single-Variable Function 7-14 

Graphing the Third Single-Variable Function 7-16 

Selecting Plot Modes 7-18 

Selection Plot Symbols 7-19 

Autoscaling 7-22 

Graphic Display Units 7-22 

Listing Parameters 7-22 

Changing the Shape of the Graph 7-24 

Graphing the First Double-Variable Function 7-30 

Graphing the Second Double-Variable Function 7-33 

Changing the Graph's Range Values 7-34 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S Ri£V A, APR 1 979 



Section 7 
FUNCTION PLOT 



INTRODUCTION 

If you're an experienced programmer well versed in display graphics techniques, you 
have several options after reading this ntroduction: read the Operation Summary, scan 
the text following the Operation Summary, or combine the two. 



If you know Function Plots and their applications, but have little background in display 
graphics, read this Introduction, skip the Operation Summary for now, and begin studying 
the text that starts with "The PLOT 50 System Software Tape." Later you may want to use 
the Operation Summary as a reference 

When you graph mathematical functions, you create a Function Plot. In this section, we'll 
focus on how to display data points from both single-variable and double-variable 
mathematical functions quickly and easily by using the PLOT 50 System Software. 

We have labeled several locations in the text as STOP/START points. These 
STOP/START points are convenient places for you to stop studying and turn off the 
Graphic System, aware that you can reenter the text at that location with the proper 
settings on the Graphic System for future demonstrations. You will receive instructions on 
how to use this study convenience when you reach the first STOP/START point. 



OPERATION SUMMARY 

To initialize the Graphic System: (text: initializing the Graphic System) 

1 . Refer to the Installation Appendix to verify that your power source is compatible 
with the line voltage of the Graphic System. 

2. Connect the power cord to the Graphic System and then to your power source. 

3. Turn ON the power switch located beneath the right-front corner of the unit. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S FiEV A, APR 1979 7-1 



FUNCTION PLOT 



To begin the PLOT 50 System Software Programs: (text: Initializing the Plot 50 System 
Software Tape) 



1 . Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. 

2. Press the AUTO LOAD key. 

3. The screen displays the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 

To initialize the Function Plot Program: (text: Graphing the First Single-Variable Function) 

1. Select item 3 on the Master Menu. 

2. The screen displays the Function Plot subroutine instructions. 

The Function Plot Menu is used as a reference for this Operation Summary. Menu 
selections are listed following their menu item number. Text references are provided to 
guide you to a detailed explanation. 

1 . DISPLAY FUNCTION, (text: Graphing the First Single-Variable Function) 

This menu selection graphs the function. If you have not yet established the 
parameters in menu selection 3, SET PARAMETERS, you will be questioned 
about them here. 

2. LIST PARAMETERS, (text: Listing Parameters) 

This menu selection presents a columnar list of graph values. They are . . . 

LINE CODE: displays the selected Plot Mode. 

SYMBOL 

CODE: gives the symbol selection. 

BEGINNING 

VARIABLE: beginning of plot. 

VARIABLE 

INCREMENT: number of plot points. 

ENDING 

VARIABLE: end of plot. 

7-2 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



SCREEN 

MINIMUM: displays X and Y axes screen starting points in Graphic 

Display Units (GDUs). 

SCREEN 

RANGE: displays X and Y axes GDU lengths. 

DATA 

MINIMUM: shows X and Y axes minimum range values. 

DATA 

RANGE: displays X and Y axes total range units. 

3. SET PARAMETERS (text: Graphing the First Single-Variable Function) 

This menu item queries you on three parameters that must be established before 
a graph can be created: the beginning variable, the ending variable, and the 
increment. These represent :he first plot point, the last plot point, and the distance 
between plot points. If this menu item is not selected before menu item 1 , 
DISPLAY FUNCTION is chosen, the appropriate queries are made automatically. 



4. SET AUTOSCALE. (text: Autoscaling) 

This menu item selects appropriate X and Y range values based on the function. 
When the SET AUTOSCALE menu item is selected, it returns your arbitrary axis 
range selections to values that coincide with original default conditions, 
providing a DISPLAY FUNCTION menu selection follows the SET AUTOSCALE 
menu entry. 

5. SET X SCREEN POSITION, (text: Changing the Shape of the Graph) 

This menu item sets the X axis horizontal length and position in GDUs on the 
130 GDU horizontal screen surface. The default condition begins the axis at 30 
GDUs and ends it at 1 1 GDUs; this establishes an axis that is 80 GDUs long. 

6. SET Y SCREEN POSITION, (text: Changing the Shape of the Graph) 

This menu selection sets the Y axis vertical length and position in GDUs on the 
100 GDU vertical display screen surface. The default condition begins the axis 
at 1 GDUs and terminates it at 90 GDUs. This creates a Y axis that is 80 GDUs 
high. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 7-3 



FUNCTION PLOT 



7. SET X DATA RANGE, (text: Changing the Graph's Range Values) 

This menu item establishes minimum and maximum X axis range values. The 
default condition is a result of autoscaling. 

8. SET Y DATA RANGE, (text: Changing the Graph's Range Values) 

This menu item establishes minimum and maximum Y axis range values. The 
default condition is a result of autoscaling. 

9. SELECT PLOT MODE (text: Selecting Plot Modes) 

Two modes are available from this menu selection: the default line plot, and the 
optional point plot. 

10. SELECT SYMBOL, (text: Selecting Plot Symbols) 

Here, you are offered a choice of five plot symbols: point, triangle, plus sign, 
square, and diamond. The point symbol is the default condition. 

11. STOP, (text: Stop) 

This selection takes you back to the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 
The function is deleted from the subroutine and all default conditions are 
established when STOP is selected. 

In addition to the menu items, the following topics in the text are brought to your attention. 

CORRECTING ERRORS, (text: Graphing the First Single-Variable Function) 

(text: PLOT 50 System Software General Information) 

GRAPHIC DISPLAY UNITS, (text: Graphic Display Units) 

PLACEMENT OF AXIS TOO CLOSE TO SCREEN BORDER. 

(text: Changing the Shape of the Graph) 

START/STOP POINTS, (text: Introduction - this section) 

(text: Graphing the First Single-Variable Function) 

SUBROUTINE FOR SINGLE-VARIABLE FUNCTION. 

(text: Graphing the First Single- Variable Function) 

Use the following: 1 00 (function entry) 
110 RETURN 
RUN 

7-4 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



SUBROUTINE FOR DOUBLE-VARIABLE FUNCTION. 

(text: Graphing the First Double- Variable Function) 
Use the following: 1 00 (function entry) 
1 10 (function entry) 
120 RETURN 
RUN 

TEXT SUMMARY, (text: Operation Summary) 

THE PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE TAPE 

Creating a Function Plot on the Graphic System from scratch isn't hard, but it does 
require some programming expertise and a Graphic System operating agility that many 
users don't want to take the time to acquire — at least not at first. 

Using BASIC programs already stored on magnetic tape to create function plots offers 
two major advantages: 

1. It saves time. 

2. It permits the beginning programmer or the casual user to create graphs with a 
minimum of study. 

The PLOT 50 System Software Tape programs the Graphic System to calculate most 
graph parameters automatically. The parameters the System establishes for you are 
called "default values/' These System settings are made unless you specify otherwise. 
Although default values serve a variety of graphic situations, it may be advantageous 
sometimes to alter or "override" one or more of the default parameters to put a plot in a 
more appropriate setting. This can be clone quickly and easily. By overriding default 
conditions, you can . . . 

1 . Move the X axis horizontally on the Graphic System display screen and make 
the axis length shorter or longer. 

2. Move the Y axis vertically on the display screen and make the axis length 
shorter or longer. 

3. Change the X axis data range. 

4. Change the Y axis data range. 

5. Choose either a line or a point plot. 

6. Choose from five plot symbols. 

We'll explain these alternatives in detail later in this section. 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 7-5 



FUNCTION PLOT 



FUNCTION PLOT TEXT SUMMARY 

Now, let's start creating Function Plots on your Graphic System display screen. We'll go 
through the procedure together step-by-step, and we'll let the System do most of the 
work. After you've created Function Plots using default values, we'll examine default 
parameters and explore why you might want to override some of them from time to time. 
We'll take a plot, and by overriding default values, change its appearance, and move it to 
different screen locations. This manipulation emphasizes the versatility of the Graphic 
System software package and shows you how easy it is to use the program to complete a 
variety of graphing requirements. 

During these demonstrations, we'll plot three single-variable functions and graph the 
functions of two double-variable functions. 



INITIALIZING THE GRAPHIC SYSTEM 

If this is the first time the Graphic System is turned on in your area, refer to the 
Installation Appendix to verify that your power source is compatible with the line voltage 
of the Graphic System. 

Turn ON the System by pressing the right side of the power switch located under the 
right-front corner of the unit (Figure 7-1 ). The four green indicator lights on the front panel 
(Figure 7-1 ) will turn on, but only the power light remains on. It stays on as long as power 
is applied to the System. 



HOME 
PAGE\ j! 




POWER 
SWITCH 



INDICATOR 
LIGHTS 



AUTO LOAD 



1940-208 



Figure 7-1. Power Switch, Indicator Lights, HOME/PAGE Key, and AUTO LOAD Key. 

Press the HOME/PAGE key. The screen will be blank except for a small blinking rectangle 
(cursor) in the upper-left corner of the screen. 



76 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIEES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



INITIALIZING THE PLOT 50 SYSTEM SOFTWARE TAPE 

Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. Refer to the PLOT 50 System Software section 
for specific instructions. Press the AUTO LOAD key (Figure 7-1 ). This rewinds the 
magnetic tape, locates the first ASCII program on the tape, loads the program into the 
Graphic System memory, and begins execution — in this case, by displaying a program 
directory (menu). 

When you press the AUTO LOAD key, the BUSY and I/O (Input/Output) indicator lights 
(Figure 7-1 ) turn on. The System makes a series of sounds that normally occur whenever 
there is tape movement in the System. Figure 7-2 shows the PLOT 50 System Software 
Master Menu that appears after the tape stops. 

** PLOT 59: SYSTEM SOFTWARE ** 

PROGRAM TITLE 

GRAPHIC SUPPORT PROGRAMS 

1 Y Only Data Plot 

2 X vs Y Data Plot 

3 Function Plot 

4 Histogran Plot 

5 GRAPHIC SYSTEM TUTORIAL 

6 SOFTWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM 

7 FIRMWARE VERIFICATION PROGRAM <4051 only) 

8 SPECIAL 4034 FEATURES (4054 only) 

ENTER THE PROGRAM NUMBER YOU WANT: ,„«,..,„, 
Figure 7-2. PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 

GRAPHING THE FIRST SINGLE VARIABLE FUNCTION 

The Master Menu is a list of the programs stored on the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. 
Notice that the Function Plot Program — the program we're looking for — is listed as item 3. 

At the bottom of the menu is a single sentence we call an "entry statement." It is followed 
by a blinking question mark. When a blinking question mark appears, it means that the 
Graphic System is waiting for you to make a keyboard entry. 

To get to the Function Plot Program, make your selection by pressing the 3 key on the 
numeric pad. Throughout this manual, when you are expected to press a number key on 
the keyboard, the expression "Enter" will be printed, followed by an appropriate number 
or numbers and their separators. The direction will appear like this: 

Enter 3 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 7-7 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Go ahead and press the 3 key. The 3 appears on the screen and is entered into the line 
buffer, a small temporary memory used for editing. 

Notice that the blinking question mark now appears to the right of the displayed 3. The 
System is waiting for you to continue your entry, or complete your entry by pressing the 
RETURN key. Whenever you are expected to press any single key other than a number 
key, the expression will be "Press" followed by the name of the key. You're expected to 
press the RETURN key now, so we say . . . 

Press RETURN 

You can type data repeatedly on the keyboard, but until you press the RETURN key, the 
System does not act on your entry. When the RETURN key is pressed, the number 3 is 
sent from the line buffer to the Random Access Memory (RAM). 

Now the line buffer is empty again; it begins filling up as you press additional keys. It will 
hold 72 characters before it fills up. While data is in the line buffer, you can change it over 
and over again if you like. That's what it's there for — to give you an editing capability. But 
once you press that RETURN key, you're committed. 

In effect, by pressing the 3 key and the RETURN key, you have just said to the System, 
"Locate the Function Plot Program on the System Software Tape and display the Function 
Plot Menu." After the tape-movement noises stop, the Master Menu is erased from the 
screen, and the Function Plot subroutine instructions shown in Figure 7-3 appear: 

TO ENTER FUNCTION: 

BEGIN AT LINE 189 INCREMENTING BY 10 
FOR SINGLE UARIABLE USE Y«FUNCTION(X) 
FOR DOUBLE UARIABLE USE X»FUNCTI0N(T1> 
Y»FUNCTI0N(T1> 
FOLLON THE FUNCTION WITH RETURN 
THEN TYPE RUN 

1940-82 

Figure 7-3. Function Subroutine Instructions. 

When you are expected to enter a combination of numbers, letters, and symbols into the 
memory, these items will be preceded by the word "Type." An instruction of this kind 
might look like this (just look at it; don't enter it!): 

Type Y = SIN(X)/X 



7-8 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



To create a Function Plot on the Graphic System display screen using defaults, it is 
necessasry to enter four items into System memory: 

1 . The function entered in subroutine format. 

2. The beginning independent variable. 

3. The ending independent variable. 

4. The increment. 

Let's use the function Y = SIN(X)/X MIN .5 for our first demonstration. The subroutine 
instructions tell us to type the number 1 00 on the keyboard and then type in the function. 
Press the RETURN key. On the second subroutine line, type 1 1 0, type the word RETURN, 
and press the RETURN key again. On the third line, type RUN; press the RETURN key. To 
ask you to enter the same data, we would formal: our directions this way. 

Type 100 Y==SIN(X)/X MIN .5 
Press RETURN 
Type 110 RETURN 
Press RETURN 

Now, enter the subroutine by following those directions. When you're through, the display 
screen will look like Figure 7-4. 



TO ENTER FUNCTION: 

BEGIN AT LINE 100 INCREMENTING BY 16 
FOR SINGLE VARIABLE USE V-FUNCTION(X) 
FOR DOUBLE VARIABLE USE X«FUNCTI0N<T1) 
Y«FUNCT10N(T1) 
FOLLOW THE FUNCTION WITH RETURN 
THEN TYPE RUN 
188 Y«SIN<X>/X NIN .5 
118 RETURN 



Figure 7-4. Entering a Function Subroutine. 

If you make a mistake before pressing the RETURN key at the conclusion of a program 
line entry, corrections are easy. The data is still in the line buffer and subject to edit. You 
can backspace, delete, add, or whatever. If you make a mistake and don't see it until after 
you have pressed the RETURN key, simply rewrite the program line. The new entry will 
nullify the old one. 

Type RUN 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1 979 



7-9 



FUNCTION PLOT 



The screen erases and displays the Function Plot Menu shown in Figure 7-5. 





FUNCTION PLOT 


1 


DISPLAY FUNCTION 


2 


LIST PARAMETERS 


3 


SET PARAMETERS 


4 


SET AUTOSCALE 


S 


SET X SCREEN POSITION 


s 


SET Y SCREEN POSITION 


7 


SET X DATA RANGE 


8 


SET Y DATA RANGE 


9 


SELECT PLOT NODE 


ie 


SELECT SYMBOL 


u 


STOP 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU 

1940-84 

Figure 7-5. Function Plot Menu. 

Notice the wording of the entry statement at the bottom of the menu. Once you leave the 
Function Plot Menu and go to any menu selection, when this entry statement appears on 
the display screen, you can return to the Function Plot Menu by pressing the M key, then 
pressing the RETURN key. You can also bypass the menu and go from one menu 
selection to another provided you know the appropriate menu selection to enter. The 
menu is a table of contents for your convenience. Use it when you need it; bypass it when 
you don't need it. 

Examine the Function Plot Menu and notice the selections that are available. In the next 
few pages, we'll discuss all the selections and how they apply to function plotting. Right 
now, let's select menu item 1, DISPLAY FUNCTION. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER BEGINNING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 

The System is asking you to enter the X axis beginning range value. Let's use —20. 

Enter -20 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ENDING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 



7-10 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Now, you are asked to enter the X axis ending range value. We'll use +20. 

Enter 20 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER INCREMENT ? 



The System is asking for the last entry needed to plot the function. The increment is the 
distance between plot points. Let's make a "rough" plot by using an increment of 1 . 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the function shown in Figure 7-6. 



* | N ^X\/\ 



-28 



-18 




18 29 

1940-85 



Figure 7-6. Function Plot with Increment of 1. 

Notice that the X axis range duplicates your recent independent variable entries. Notice 
also that an increment of 1 gives you a "rough" plot. Let's go back to the Function Plot 
Menu. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APR 1979 



7-11 



FUNCTION PLOT 



The screen displays the Function Plot Menu. Notice that item 3 is SET PARAMETERS. 
Make that selection now. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER BEGINNING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 

When you first plot a function, the questions in this menu item are obtained automatically 
by selecting menu item 1 — DISPLAY FUNCTION. This was demonstrated when you 
created the graph earlier. When you create a plot and later want to change the 
parameters, you must address menu item 3 to do it. We now want to refine the plot 
increment. We'll leave the independent variables the same and use .1 for the increment. 

Enter -20 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ENDING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 

Enter 20 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER INCREMENT ? 

Enter .1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Let's graph the function and see how much smoother the plot becomes (Figure 7-7). 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

The BUSY light on the front panel shows you that the System is performing the necessary 
calculations; the smaller you make the increment, the longer it takes. 



7-12 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 




-28 



29 

1940-86 



Figure 7-7. Function Plot with Increment of .1 . 

That's a smoother plot, and worth waiting for! 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Function Plot Menu. 



STOP 

Observe menu item 1 1 — STOP. You must return to the PLOT 50 System Software Master 
Menu if you wish to go to another program on the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. You 
must also return to the Master Menu if you want to enter another function. STOP takes 
you to the Master Menu and resets all default parameters. We will execute it now. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Plot 50 System Software Master Menu. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Function Plot subroutine instructions. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



7-13 



FUNCTION PLOT 



This is a STOP/START point. 

We just passed the first STOP/START point. Let's digress long enough to discuss how to 
reenter the text and continue the demonstrations if you terminate your studies at one of 
these points. We assume your text edit includes turning off the Graphic System. Here's 
how to reenter: 

1. Initialize the Graphic System. 

2. Initialize the PLOT 50 System Software Tape. This displays the PLOT 50 Master 
Menu. 

3. Select menu item 3. This displays the Function Plot subroutine instructions. 

4. Resume your text studies. 

GRAPHING THE SECOND SINGLE-VARIABLE FUNCTION 

You will be graphing the function: Y = EXP(-.01*X 2 )*SIN(X*2). 

Type 100 Y = EXP(-.01*XT2)*SIN(X*2) 
Press RETURN 
Type 110 RETURN 

At this point in the subroutine, your screen should display this: 



TO ENTER FUNCTION: 

BEGIN AT LINE ted INCREHENTING BY 19 
FOR SINGLE VARIABLE USE Y«FUNCTION<X> 
FOR DOUBLE VARIABLE USE X»FUNCTI0N<T1> 

Y«FUNCTI0N<T1> 
FOLLOW THE FUNCTION WITH RETURN 
THEN TYPE RUN 

lee Y=E;;p<-.0i*xt2>*siN<x*2> 

118 RETURN 



Now, finish the subroutine. 



Type RUN 
Press RETURN 



7-14 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



The screen erases and displays the Function Plot Menu. We can select the SET 
PARAMETERS menu item and establish our other parameters before we select item 1 — 
DISPLAY FUNCTION, or we can go directly to menu item 1 and have the System query us 
on the parameters anyway. Let's save a step and go directly to the DISPLAY FUNCTION 
selection. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER BEGINNING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 

This time, we'll go from a —20 to a +20 on the X axis and use .5 for the increment. 

Enter -20 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER ENDING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 



Enter 20 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER INCREMENT ? 



Enter .5 
Press RETURN 




Figure 7-8. Function Plot with Increment of .5. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



7-15 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Previously, you plotted a function with an increment of 1 and .1 ; this time we used .5 as an 
increment. You might find it interesting to compare the three plots and see how the 
increment changes the smoothness of the graph. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Function Plot Menu. We are ready to start another function, so we 
must return to the Master Menu. 

Enter 11 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 

This is a STOP/START point. 

GRAPHING THE THIRD SINGLE-VARIABLE FUNCTION 

To return to the Function Plot subroutine instructions: 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

Let's plot the function: Y = 2*X 2 + 3*X + 25. 

Type 100 Y = 2*XT2 + 3*X + 25 
Press RETURN 
Type 110 RETURN 
Press RETURN 



Your display screen should look like this: 



TO ENTER FUNCTION: 

BEGIN AT LINE 190 INCREMENTING BY 10 
FOR SINGLE VARIABLE USE Y-FUNCTI0N<X> 
FOR DOUBLE VARIABLE USE X*FUNCTI0N<T1 > 

Y-FUNCTION(Tl) 
FOLLOW THE FUNCTION WITH RETURN 
THEN TYPE RUN 
100 Y=2*Xt2+3*X+25 
110 RETURN 



7-16 



REV A. APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Now complete the subroutine: 

Type RUN 
Press RETLRN 

The screen erases and displays the Function Plot Menu. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER BEGINNING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 



ENTER -10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER ENDING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 



Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER INCREMENT ? 



Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

The BUSY light on the front panel assures you that the System is preparing your plot; 
then this function plot is displayed: 



309 




e «■ 



-ie 



18 

1940-90 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



F(EV A, APR 1 979 



7-17 



FUNCTION PLOT 



SELECTING PLOT MODES 

Menu selection 9 is called SELECT PLOT MODE. It gives you the choice of a line or a 
point plot. Let's go there, choose the point plot, and regraph the function. 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

Screen: 1 LINE PLOT MODE 

2 POINT PLOT MODE 
SELECT NUMBER AND PRESS RETURN ? 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Figure 7-9 shows the function regraphed in Point Plot Mode. 



JBB 








258 








286 






■ 


158 








iee 








58 

a i 


\ 

s 

\ 

1 




/ 
/ 
S 

* * 



-IB 



18 



Figure 7-9. Function Plot in Point Plot Mode. 



7-18 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



SELECTING PLOT SYMBOLS 

There are other plotting symbols besides points that we can use. Menu item 1 0, SELECT 
SYMBOL, gives us several choices. 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



1 POINT 

2 TRIANGLE 

3 PLUS SIGN 

4 SQUARE 

5 DIAMOND 



Let's see what the function looks like p otted with triangles. 

Enter 2 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



388 



238 



288 




Figure 7-10. Function Plot in Point Plot Mode 
with Triangle Plot Symbols and Increment of .1 . 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



7-19 



FUNCTION PLOT 



As Figure 7-1 shows, it's sort of like trying to write a business letter with a paint brush! If 
you have a special application for these symbols, use a large plotting increment. Let's 
change to an increment of 1 and replot. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER BEGINNING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 



We won't change the variables, just the increment. 

Enter -10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER ENDING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 



Enter 10 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER VARIABLE ? 



Enter 1 
Press Return 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



JWB 




239 


, i 




A 


288 






A 


A 

130 


A 


A 






A 


186 A 






A 


A 




A 
59 A 

A *A< 


A 

A 
A 



-18 



-5 



5 18 

1940-93 



7-20 



Figure 7-11. Function Plot in Point Plot Mode with 
Triangle Plot Symbols and Increment of 1 . 

REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Figure 7-1 1 shows the improvement! The first Symbol Menu selection gives us "dots." 
which we've already displayed. Why don't you plot the function using other symbol 
selections? When you're through, return to the Function Plot Menu. To do this: Enter 1 0, 
Press RETURN; Enter the Symbol Menu number of the symbol you choose, Press 
RETURN; Enter 1 , Press RETURN. When you have plotted all the symbols, you will want 
to... 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

Let's return to Line Plot Mode and the point symbol: 

Enter 9 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Plot Mode Menu. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 10 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Symbol Menu. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Function Plot Menu. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S FiEV A. APR 1979 7-21 



FUNCTION PLOT 



AUTOSCALING 

When you plot a function on the Graphic System without indicating specific X and Y axes 
data ranges, the System establishes ranges that display the function plot appropriately. 
We call this automatic range determination "autoscaling." When we talk about data 
ranges for the X axis, for example, we're referring to the minimum to maximum values 
plotted against the X axis. The X axis index numbers (the numbers that label the X axis tic 
marks) reflect those data range values. The same data range format applies to the Y axis. 

If you enter a function into the Graphic System and immediately ask for a Function Plot by 
selecting menu item 1 , the System searches its memory to see if you gave it data range 
instructions. If not, the System autoscales; that is, it tests the function with each selected 
independent variable and establishes minimum and maximum data ranges on both axes 
that include all point values. The System does not autoscale until just before the graph is 
created. So far, we have not specified any specific axes data ranges, so all our graphs 
have been autoscaled. 



GRAPHIC DISPLAY UNITS 

The Graphic System display screen is internally divided into 1 00 vertical and 1 30 
horizontal units called "Graphic Display Units" (GDUs). We'll be working with these units 
to relocate the position of the graph on the screen. 



LISTING PARAMETERS 

When you select menu item 2, LIST PARAMETERS, you have picked a handy reference 
chart that will assist you in many plotting situations. Let's take a few moments to examine 
these parameter entries (Figure 7-1 2). 

PARAMETER LIST 

LINE CODE 1 
SYMBOL CODE 1 
BEGINNING VARIABLE -10 
VARIABLE INCREMENT 1 
ENDING VARIABLE 18 

SCREEN MINIMUM 30 10 

SCREEN RANGE 80 50 

DATA MINIMUM -10 8 

DATA RANGE 20 300 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU 

1940-94 

Figure 7-1 2. Parameter List Headings. 



7-22 REV A. APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Here is an explanation of the Parameter List headings: 

Line Code: This heading shows the Plot Mode Menu selection. The default value 
is Line Plot Mode. 



Symbol 
Code: 



This heading shows the Symbol menu selection. The default value is 
Point Symbol Mode. 



Beginning 

Variable: This heading reflects the beginning independent variable you specify. 

Variable 

Increment: This heading shows the plotting increment you determine. 



Ending 
Variable: 



This heading indicates the ending variable you specify. 



Screen 
Minimum: 



This parameter entry indicates the Graphic Display Unit (GDU) point 
where the X and Y axis begin. When in a default condition, the X axis 
begins 30 GDUs horizontally from the left side of the screen, and the 
Y axis begins 1 GDUs vertically from the bottom of the screen. 
These default conditions provide a screen graphing location suitable 
for most function plots. 



Screen 
Range: 



These entries indicate the length of the X and Y axes in GDUs. If you 
add this value to the screen minimum, you obtain the axis termination 
point expressed in GDUs (screen maximum). 



Data 
Minimum: 



The data minimum s the X and Y axes data minimums established by 
you, or it is the autoscaled data minimums selected by the Graphic 
System. 



Data 
Range: 



These figures show total values on each axes. Add the data range to 
the data minimum to get a maximum value on each axis. 



We'll reinforce these comments with specific examples in the next few paragraphs; don't 
feel uneasy if some terms are not yet clear to you. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1 979 



723 



FUNCTION PLOT 



CHANGING THE SHAPE OF THE GRAPH 

Shortening and lengthening the X and Y axes changes the impact of your graph. If we 
stretch the X axis and compress the Y axis, we tend to "flatten out" the graph and de- 
emphasize differences in the plot points. Conversely, if we lengthen the Y axis and 
shorten the X axis, we make minor differences in plot points appear more pronounced. 

Another reason for changing the size and shape of the plot is to meet size requirements. If 
you need to make a copy of a screen plot smaller than the original and suitable reduction 
facilities are not available, make the screen plot smaller and take a picture of the screen 
with an optional hard copy unit. 

Your Graphic System should still be displaying the Parameter List. Before we start moving 
the plot around, let's make sure we know where it is now. We're using a screen that is 1 30 
GDUs wide. Notice that the X screen minimum is 30 and the X screen range is 80. If the X 
axis starts at 30 GDUs and is 80 GDUs long, the X axis terminates at 1 1 GDUs. 

The X data minimum is —1 and the X data range is 20. This means that the axis 
minimum range starts with a value of —1 and continues for 20 units to a maximum range 
of 10. 

We analyze Y axis parameter listings the same way. There are 1 00 vertical GDU points on 
the screen. The Y screen minimum is 1 and the Y screen range is 80. Add the 80 and the 
1 and we have the Y axis ending at the 90 GDU screen point. 

The Y data minimum is and the Y data range is 300; the Y axis has a range of 300 units 
(0 + 300) that starts at and ends at 300. 

Now, let's take our function plot and change its shape. We'll use extreme examples to 
dramatize the differences. We'll begin by shortening the X axis. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Function Plot Menu. Notice that menu items 5 and 6 are the 
selections for X and Y axes screen positions. 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



7-24 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Enter 90 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 1 

Press RETURN 




Figure 7-1 3. Function Plot with Compressed X Axis. 

Observe the emphasis this format gives to differences in plot points (Figure 7-1 3). Notice 
that the System has changed the X axis data range to 40 units (—20 to +20) to 
accommodate the new format. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



3EVA, APR 1979 



725 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Now, we'll reduce the Y axis, and at the same time place the function plot in the upper- 
right corner of the display screen (Figure 7-1 4). 

Enter 6 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



Enter 70 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 90 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



499 
208 

e 



\J 



-28 8 28 



Figure 7-14. Function Plot with Compressed X and Y Axes. 



7-26 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Notice that the System has changed the Y data range to accommodate the reduced 
format. Now. we'll de-emphasize differences in plot points by extending the X axis and 
compressing the Y axis. We'll start with the X axis. 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 

Screen: PLEASE ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 

Enter 15 
Press RETURN 

Screen: MAXIMUM ? 

Enter 115 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER MENU ITEM NLMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

If we were to graph this plot now, we would retain the —20 to +20 X axis data range. We 
want to get back to the original range of —10 to +10 and we can accomplish this easily 
by using the menu selection SET AUTOSCALE. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

Screen: AUTOSCALED 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1 979 7-27 



FUNCTION PLOT 




1940-97 



Figure 7-15. Function Plot with Extended X Axis and Compressed Y Axis. 

Observe how this format de-emphasizes differences in plot points. Let's go back to our 
original format before we start on another topic. If you recall, our X axis parameters were: 
screen position from 30 to 1 1 GDUs; the data range from — 1 to + 1 0. Y axis 
parameters were: screen position from 1 to 90 GDUs; the data range from to 300. 

To return to our original format . . . 

Enter 5 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER X SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



Enter 30 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



7-28 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Enter 110 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 6 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER Y SCREEN MINIMUM ? 



Press 1 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 90 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 1 

Press RET URN 

And there's the graph we started with! 




4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



7-29 



FUNCTION PLOT 



If you put the X axis too close to the left or the right screen border, or if you establish the 
Y axis too close to the bottom or top of the display screen, you can get graph aberrations. 
When your graph is too close to the screen boundaries, you may find your graph data 
chopped off, the axis index numbers compressed at one end of an axis, or the screen 
displaying only part of a plot and stopped in a "page full" condition. 

The default parameters for the X and Y axes are adequate for most graphing 
requirements. If you decide to customize the graph's screen location, remember to allow 
sufficient room horizontally and vertically for axis index numbers. 

Now, let's go to the subroutine instructions and create a different function plot. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Function Plot Menu. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Function Plot subroutine instructions. 

This is a STOP/START point. 

GRAPHING THE FIRST DOUBLE-VARIABLE FUNCTION 

Plotting a double-variable function is easy when you use the Function Plot Program. In the 
double-variable function format, we put either the X or the Y function on program line 1 00, 
the other function on program line 1 1 0, and the RETURN instruction on program line 1 20. 
Let's try one. 

Type 1 00 X=COS(T1 )*25 

Press RETURN 

Type 110 Y = SIN(T1)*25 

Press RETURN 

Type 1 20 RETURN 

Press RETURN 



7-30 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



The screen looks like this: 



TO ENTER FUNCTION: 

BEGIN AT LINE 106 INCREMENTING BY 18 
FOR SINGLE TRIABLE USE Y-FUNCTION(X) 
FOR DOUBLE YURI ABLE USE X'FUNCTION(Tl) 
Y»FUNCTI0N(T1) 
FOLLOW THE FUNCTION HITH RETURN 
THEN TYPE RUN 
108 X«C0S(Tl)*23 
110 Y»SIN<T1)*25 
120 RETURN 



Type RUN 
Press RETURN 



The screen erases and displays the Function Plot Menu. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER BEGINNING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 

We'll start at and use 2 PI to obtain a circle. 

Enter 

Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER ENDING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 

Enter 6.28 
Press RETURN 

Screen: ENTER INCREMENT ? 

Enter .04 
Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 7-31 



FUNCTION PLOT 




-38 -28 -18 6 



18 28 38 

1940-100 



Figure 7-16. Double-Variable Function Plot. 



Figure 7-1 6 shows the resulting function plot. 

Let's try another one. As you recall, we must return to the PLOT 50 System Software 
Master Menu to reach the subroutine instructions. STOP is menu item 1 1 . 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Master Menu. 

Enter 3 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Function Plot subroutine instructions. 



7-32 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



GRAPHING THE SECOND DOUBLE-VARIABLE FUNCTION 

Type 100X==SIN(T1)+T1 

Press RETURN 

Type 110 Y==SIN(T1)-T1 

Press RETURN 

Type120REITURN 

Press RETURN 

Type RUN 

Press RETURN 

The screen displays the Function Plot Menu. 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER BEGINNING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 



Enter -3 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER ENDING INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ? 



Enter 3 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER INCREMENT ? 



Enter .1 

Press RETURN 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



F'EV A, APR 1 979 



7-33 



FUNCTION PLOT 




CHANGING THE GRAPH'S RANGE VALUES 



Function Plot Menu items 7 and 8 permit you to change the minimum to maximum range 
values of the X and Y axes. In autoscaling, the axes have range values set to include the 
dependent values generated by the function. These variables determine the plotting 
points; you can increase the range values of the X and Y axes as much as you like, but it 
will not affect the plot. On the other hand, if you decrease the axes ranges to values less 
than the values given to the independent variables, you "chop off" segments of the plot. 
Let's go to the Function Plot Menu first and identify these two menu selections. Then we'l 
modify the graph we currently have in System memory and see how all these things fit 
together. 

Press M 
Press RETURN 

The screen displays the menu. Observe selections 7 and 8. Also, refresh your memory 
about the item number for the SET AUTOSCALE selection. First, we'll make the graph 
bigger than the plot by extending both the X and the Y axes. 

Enter 7 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X DATA MINIMUM ? 



Enter -20 
Press RETURN 



7-34 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 20 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 8 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER Y DATA MINIMUM ? 



Enter -20 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 20 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



28 



16 



e h- 



-18 



-20 



-28 



-10 



i. 



T 



10 20 

1940-102 



Figure 7-1 7. Function Plot with Extreme Data Ranges. 



FUNCTION PLOT 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



735 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Figure 7-1 7 shows this exaggerated example of how a graph can dwarf a plot! To return 
to the original graph, we don't have to go back and do everything in reverse; all we have to 
do is autoscale. Like this . . . 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

Screen: AUTOSCALED 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Let's make a graph and see if it really works! 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 



e i »- 



-l 



I « e- I 1 1 



-3 



-1 



3 4 

1940-103 



Notice that we have returned to the range values we had originally. We will now "chop off" 
segments of the plot by reducing the X and Y range values. Figure 7-1 8 shows what these 
range values are going to do to the present plot. 

Enter 7 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER X DATA MINIMUM ? 



Enter -2.5 
Press RETURN 



736 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 2.5 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 8 

Press RETURN 



Screen: 



PLEASE ENTER Y DATA MINIMUM ? 



Enter -2.5 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



MAXIMUM ? 



Enter 2.5 
Press RETURN 



Screen: 



ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 



Enter 1 

Press RETURN 




Figure 7-1 8. Function Plot with Clipped Segments. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



=IEV A. APR 1979 



737 



FUNCTION PLOT 



Notice that the plot is "chopped off" from the top and bottom on the Y axis and from both 
sides on the X axis. If we autoscale, the plot returns to original range values. 

Enter 4 

Press RETURN 

Screen: AUTOSCALED 

ENTER MENU ITEM NUMBER OR M FOR NEW MENU ? 

Enter 1 

Press RETURN 




You have just completed the Function Plot study program. You may turn the System off; 
or you may implement the STOP menu selection that follows, leave the Function Plot 
Program, and return to the PLOT 50 System Software Master Menu. 

Enter 1 1 
Press RETURN 



738 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIEIS OPERATOR'S 



Section 8 



Page 

Introduction 8-1 

Implemenation 8-2 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 



Section 8 
SYSTEM VERIFICATION 



INTRODUCTION 

Since you're expecting the Graphic System to help solve some important problems, you're 
anxious to get the System into operation as soon as possible. Before the System is used, 
you want assurance that the memory and associated internal components are performing 
properly. 

Careful production procedures and vig lant quality control at the Tektronix factory make 
us confident of the Graphic System's accuracy when it leaves the factor loading dock. 
However, a Graphic System may be subjected to a variety of shocks and vibrations 
en route to your location; in spite of our protective packaging, some subtle damage could 
occur. 

We want you to be confident that your new Graphic System is in perfect working order. 
The System Verification Programs were created to verify proper System performance 
when the Graphic System is received, and at any later time if System performance is in 
doubt. 

The nice part about the System Verification Programs is that they form a do-it-yourself 
verification kit. You don't lose operating time waiting for someone to come and check out 
the System for you. 

You can run the System Verification Programs in less than 1 minutes. When the System 
checks out, it can be used immediately with confidence. In those rare instances when 
something is wrong, the program tells you about it, and you call a Tektronix representative 
for assistance. 

There are two verification programs: a software program and a firmware program. 

The Software Verification Program checks out System internal components: the 
keyboard, the Graphic System display, and data transfer to and from the internal magnetic 
tape unit. You and the Graphic System act as a team in this checkout. You press keys in 
response to System requests, and the System responds with various statements and test 
patterns. 

The Firmware Verification Program checks out the System memory. The System does all 
the work in this program in about 1 mir ute. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 3EV B, JUN 1 979 8-1 



SYSTEM VERIFICATION 



If you have a 4051 Graphic System, you should run both verification programs during the 
intial checkout. You should also run the Software Verification Program after cleaning the 
tape head, and whenever you wish to check internal tape drive operation. 

If you have a 4052/4054 Graphic System, you should run the Software Verification 
Program during the initial checkout, after cleaning the tape head, and whenever you wish 
to check internal tape drive operation. Because of their internal configurations, it is never 
necessary to run the Firmware Verification Program on the 4052/4054 Graphic Systems. 



IMPLEMENTATION 

Okay, you've got a Graphic System. It's been unpacked, the installation instructions have 
been read and followed, and the System has been turned on. Now, you want to know if it is 
operating properly— you want the System Verification Programs to check out the System. 
How is that done? 

Figure 8-1 shows how to write-protect a tape cartridge. This prevents writing on the tape 
or erasing information that is recorded on the tape. To write-protect a tape cartridge, 
insert a coin or a screwdriver into the cylinder with an arrow painted on it, the write- 
protect cylinder. Turn the cylinder until the arrow points to the position marked SAFE: and 
locks there. To remove the write-protection, turn the cylinder until the arrow points to the 
position opposite SAFE and locks there. 



8-2 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



SYSTEM VERIFICATION 



WRITE-PROTECT 
CYLINDER 





SAFE 



Figure 8-1. Writa-Protecting a Tape Cartridge. 

Remove the write-protection from the PLOT 50 System Software Tape before running the 
System Verification Programs. This allows the Software Verification Program to test data 
transfer to a magnetic tape. 






> CAUTION < 

When the System Verification Programs are completed, return the write- 
protect arrow to SAFE to protect the tape from inadvertent erasure. 



Insert the PLOT 50 System Software Tape into the System. Detailed instruction on loading 
a magnetic tape cartridge is provided in the PLOT 50 System Software General 
Information section. Press the AUTO LOAD key. When tape movement stops, the PLOT 50 
System Software Master Menu appears on the display screen. Notice that menu selection 
6 is the Software Verification Program. Press the 6 key; then press the RETURN key. This 
will take you to the Software Verification Program. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



8-3 



SYSTEM VERIFICATION 



When the Software Verification Program is completed, the System automatically returns 
to the Master Menu. Notice that the 7th selection on the menu is the Firmware Verification 
Program. If you have a 4051 Graphic System, press the 7 key; then press the RETURN 
key. 

After completion of the Verification Program(s), turn off the Graphic System or press the 
AUTO LOAD key to return to the Master Menu. 



8-4 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Section 9 



Page 

Introduction g_1 

The Basic Programming Language g_1 

The 4050 Series Graphic System Hardware 9-2 

Overview g_2 

The Keyboard 9.3 

The Processor 9.4 

Random Access Memory (RAM) 9.4 

The Magnetic Tape Unit 9.4 

The Display 9.5 

System Operation 9.5 

Introduction 9.5 

System Initialization 9.5 

The Graphic System Display 9-6 

Cursors 9.7 

The Line Buffer 9.7 

The Page Full Condition 9.9 

The Type Ahead Feature 9.9 

Intensity 9-10 

Automatic Paging (Erasing) 9_1 

Character Size 9-10 

Vectors 9-11 

Addressable Units and Display Resolution 9-11 

Control Descriptions 9-1 1 

Introduction g_1 1 

Front Panel Indicators 9-1 3 

The Alphanumeric Keyboard 9-13 

Character Font Selection 9-18 

The Numeric Keypad 9_21 

The Editing Keys 9-21 

User Definable Keys 9-23 

AUTO NUMBER and STEP PROGRAM 9-26 

Peripheral Control Keys 9-27 

The Thumbwheels 9-28 

Math Operations g_29 

Introduction 9-29 

Real Numbers 9-29 

Numeric Constants 9-30 

Numeric Variables 9-30 

Numeric Range 9-30 

Arithmetic Operations 9-30 

Hierarchy 9.31 

Translating Algebraic Expressions into BASIC 9-32 

Math Functions 9.35 

Trigonometric Functions 9-36 

Matrix Functions. 9-37 

User— Definable Math Functions 9-37 



Section 9 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



INTRODUCTION 

The first part of this section discusses the BASIC programming language, explaining why 
you must understand the "basics" of E:ASIC to use the 4050 Series Graphic System. The 
next part presents a simplified block diagram of the Graphic System hardware. It also 
presents general descriptions of its major hardware components: the keyboard, the 
Processor, the Random Access Memory (RAM), the magnetic tape unit, and the display. 
The block diagram and descriptions ate provided to help you understand the basic 
hardware of the Graphic System. The last part of this section discusses System operation 
and operator control. 



THE BASIC PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE 

To communicate with the Graphic System, you must communicate in a language the 
System understands. Your 4050 Series Graphic System understands a language called 
BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). 

BASIC is a high-level programming language that uses English-like and math-like 
notation. The BASIC programming language is similar to a written language. A written 
language is composed of sentences, whereas BASIC is composed of statements. 
Sentences are formed from fundamental elements, such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives; 
statements in BASIC are formed from fundamental elements, such as constants, 
variables, and expressions. The set of rules which governs sentence structure in a written 
language and statement structure in BASIC is called the syntax of the language. The 
Graphic System cannot process a sta:ement that does not conform to proper syntax. If 
you enter a statement with incorrect syntax, a syntax error message appears on the 
screen. (Refer to the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual for detailed syntax 
information.) 

The Graphic System BASIC language, which is an extended form of the original BASIC 
programming language, is especially adapted for graphics. The Graphic System BASIC 
language differs from other BASIC languages in that most keywords and their parameters 
can be evaluated by the System independently from program control; they are executed 
immediately by the System if the statement is entered without a line number. For example, 
to draw a single vector (line) on the display, simply type DRAW followed by the position 
coordinates that identify where the line is to be drawn. Pressing the RETURN key causes 
the statement to be executed immediately. This is one characteristic that makes the 
Graphic System BASIC language unicue. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1 979 



9-1 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



To prevent immediate statement execution, you precede a statement with a line number. 
The line number alerts the System that the statement following the line number is part of a 
program. BASIC programs are stored in the Random Access Memory (RAM) and are 
executed sequentially when the program execute statement (RUN) is entered from the 
keyboard and the RETURN key is pressed. 

The primary reason for mentioning BASIC here is to emphasize that you cannot get the 
System to do anything for you unless your entries conform to proper syntax. Of course, 
entering a simple BASIC statement is one thing; putting the statements together to make 
a program is another. Let's leave the details on syntax and programming to the 4050 
Series Graphic Reference Manual and the PLOT 50 Introduction to Programming in 
BASIC and the PLOT 50 Introduction to Graphic Programming in BASIC manuals. 



THE 4050 SERIES GRAPHIC SYSTEM HARDWARE 

Overview 

Figure 9-1 presents a simplified block drawing of the 4050 Series Graphic System 
hardware: the keyboard, the Processor, the Random Access Memory (RAM), the internal 
magnetic tape unit, and the display. 

As a Graphic System user, your primary interest lies in entering BASIC statements that 
tell the System how to perform a task. You may want to perform a simple mathematical 
calculation, or you may want to enter a program and then have the System process it. For 
any task within the capabilities of the System, the necessary processing power is 
provided by the Processor. The Processor provides the intelligence for the Graphic 
System and controls all routing of data within the System. The keyboard and magnetic 
tape unit are your means for sending information to the Processor. Entries from the 
keyboard are routed to the display. There you can check your entry to make sure the 
syntax is correct before commanding the Processor to execute the statement. If a 
statement is written with proper syntax and is not preceded by a line number, the 
Processor executes the statement immediately after the RETURN key is pressed. If a 
statement preceded by a line number is syntactically correct, the Processor directs the 
statement to the Random Access Memory (RAM) and awaits further instructions. 



9-2 



REV A, APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



DISPLAY 




PROCESSOR 




r it"! ,:_j c i i.j_. r ■- i 2 c~i \ in 

KEYBOARD 

ixn. i. ]',!,[, [ r ].];i.i,i T [ i 

'l.'! !.'l i l.'l l.'l I 1 



1940-238 



Figure 9-1 . The 4050 Series Graphic System Hardware. 



The Keyboard 

The keyboard is the primary input device for the System. Each time a key is pressed, the 
Processor places a representation for :hat key in a RAM location called the line buffer. It 
also displays that representation on the screen. The line buffer, which holds up to 72 
keyboard characters, is discussed in detail later in this section. When the RETURN key is 
pressed, the line buffer contents are piocessed by the Processor if the input conforms to 
proper syntax. If the input does not conform to proper syntax, the Processor sends it back 
to the line buffer to be displayed and edited. A syntax error notation also appears on the 
screen. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



UEV B.APR 1979 



9-3 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



The Processor 

The Processor is the routing and computing device for the Graphic System. All other 
modules are considered support devices. In other words, in relation to the Processor, the 
keyboard is an input device, the display is an output device, and RAM and the magnetic 
tape unit can be either input or output devices, depending on the function being 
performed. Optional devices can be added to the System externally to enhance either the 
input or output capabilities. The Processor directs all System operations, decodes BASIC 
instructions, and performs arithmetic and logic operations. It is guided by a set of 
instructions called firmware that enables it to interpret the BASIC programming language. 
These instructions are permanently fixed in the System and cannot be changed. Because 
the firmware is an integral part of the Processor, it is not destroyed when the power is 
turned off. It is always available when the System is turned on. Firmware may be 
supplemented externally by ROM Packs (each up to 1 6K bytes of specialized firmware 
programs). 4052 Graphic System ROM Packs and 4054 Graphic System ROM Packs are 
compatible, but neither are compatible with the 4051 Graphic System. Neither are 4051 
ROM Packs compatible with the 4052 or the 4054. 



Random Access Memory (RAM) 

The Random Access Memory (RAM) functions like a scratchpad for the Processor; it 
provides temporary storage locations for keyboard entries, BASIC program instructions, 
and intermediate processing results. Data flowing into and out of RAM is controlled by the 
Processor. The contents of RAM are not destroyed unless overwritten by new information, 
or unless power is removed from the System. 



The Magnetic Tape Unit 

Like RAM, the magnetic tape unit also provides data storage capability for the System. 
However, the magnetic tape unit provides permanent data storage capability, rather than 
the temporary storage provided by RAM. The information stored on tape may be a 
program or it may be data to be processed by a program. 

Data is not passed directly between RAM and the tape unit; the Processor acts as a go- 
between. Information traveling to the magnetic tape unit from RAM passes through the 
Processor first; likewise, data traveling from the magnetic tape unit to RAM passes 
through the Processor first. 



9.4 rev A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



The Display 

The display is the device that enables you to view your keyboard entries and that gives 
the Processor a means to "talk" to you. The Processor may respond to your entry with a 
blinking question mark (?), which is an indication that you are to make another entry; it 
may respond by drawing a graph, a picture, a function plot, etc.; or it may respond with a 
syntax error message, which is its way of telling you that it does not understand your 
entry. 

The Graphic System display is a storage crt device. "Storage" refers to the ability of the 
display to retain an image when the image is written only once. The display screen retains 
the written image for operator viewing and hard copy purposes. (An optional hard copy 
unit can obtain a permanent paper copy of the screen contents.) 



SYSTEM OPERATION 

Introduction 

This material explains Graphic System operation and operator control. It is not intended 
to cover every detail of Graphic System operation nor to teach programming concepts and 
techniques. However, because the Graphic System is unique, flexible, and extremely 
powerful, care is taken to describe items of operation not obvious to the new user, 
(especially those items unique to display graphics). If you are new to the Graphic System, 
read the preceding information in this section if you have not already done so. It will 
enable you to understand the following information more thoroughly. 

System Initialization 

If this is the first time the Graphic System is turned on in your area, refer to the 
Installation Appendix to verify that your power source is compatible with the line voltage 
setting of the Graphic System. 

Turn ON the System by pressing the right side of the power switch located under the 
right-front corner of the unit (Figure 9-2). 

NOTE 

If several devices are connected to the GPIB, one more than 50% of the 
devices must be turned on (regardless of whether they are used) before 
you turn on the Graphic System. Otherwise, the bus may be loaded down, 
causing an error message or causing the System not to respond properly. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 9-5 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



The four green indicator lights on the front panel (Figure 9-2) will turn on, but only the 
POWER light remains on. It stays on as long as power is applied to the System. 



HOME 

PAGE \^_ 



wwjflftMifinnffifm pn'A light 




INDICATOR 
LIGHTS 



POWER 



POWER SWITCH 



Figure 9-2. Power Switch, Indicator Lights, and HOME/PAGE Key. 



When the System powers up, it is immediately ready to go to work for you; its firmware 
contains operating instructions that enable it to interpret the language with which you'll 
communicate — Graphic System BASIC. 



The Graphic System Display 

The Graphic System display is the device that enables you to monitor the communica- 
tions that occur between you and the Graphic System. It has been especially adapted to 
the graphic processing capabilities of the System and enables the Processor to 
communicate to you in either alphanumerics or graphics. 

At power-up, you may notice the screen "writing up" around the page borders. This is 
normal. Simply press the HOME/PAGE key (Figure 9-2) and the screen will be blank 
except for a small blinking rectangle (cursor) in the upper-left corner of the screen. This 
position is called the "home" position. 

The home position is the first character position of the first usable line of the display 
screen. 



9-6 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Cursors 

The cursor is moved about the display screen during System operation to show the 
current position of the writing beam. It ndicates the position where the next keyboard 
character is to be printed. There are fojr 4050 Series Graphic System cursors: the 
blinking rectangle, the blinking question mark, the blinking arrow, and the full screen 
crosshair. 

The blinking rectangle appears at power-up and is displayed when the System is not 
under program control. It is present when you are doing things such as entering BASIC 
statements and editing programs. 

The blinking question mark is displayed when the System is under program control and is 
waiting for input from the keyboard. 

The blinking arrow, a graphic cursor, is displayed only on the 4051 and 4052 Graphic 
Systems. It appears following execution of a POINTER statement and is under operator 
control only with an optional Joystick. 

The full screen crosshair cursor is the graphic cursor displayed only on the 4054 Graphic 
System. It appears following execution of a POINTER statement and is controlled with the 
thumbwheels at the right side of the keyboard or by an optional Joystick. See the 
POINTER statement explanation in the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual 
for additional information. 



The Line Buffer 

You may think that entries from the keyboard go directly to the display, but that isn't what 
happens. The display, like every other System device, is controlled by the Processor and 
does not receive input directly from any other device. A keyboard entry goes first to the 
Processor. The Processor loads the character into a line buffer and displays the 
character on the screen if it is a displayable character. 

The line buffer is a 72-character portion of RAM that allows you to edit your entry before 
it is sent to the BASIC interpreter for syntax checking. Statements in the line buffer are 
sent to the interpreter by pressing the RETURN key. If a statement does not conform to 
proper syntax, it is sent back to the line buffer and displayed for further editing. A syntax 
error notation accompanies the rejected statement. A statement conforming to proper 
syntax and not preceded by a line number is executed immediately by the Processor. A 
syntactically correct statement that is preceded by a line number is stored in memory to 
be executed when a RUN statement is "eceived. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APFM979 9-7 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



If the line buffer becomes full, the cursor stops moving to the right. Attempting to enter 
additional characters causes only the contents of the last buffer position to change. If you 
begin an entry in the middle of a display line and fill the display line before filling the line 
buffer, the System continues to display line buffer entries by "wrapping around" to the 
next line until the 72 line buffer positions are filled. See Figure 9-3. 



wrap around occurs. 



If you fill the display line before the line buffers 



Figure 9-3. Wrapping Around to Display Remainder of Line Buffer Contents. 



To edit a wrapped-around line, hold down the SHIFT key and press the REPRINT/CLEAR 
key (Figure 9-4); this displays the wrapped-around line as one line. The editing keys are 
discussed in detail later in this section. 



EDITING 
KEYS 




l^mmmmn^m^ pji\\ 



REPRINT/CLEAR 



Figure 9-4. The REPRINT/CLEAR Key. 



9-8 



REV A.APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



The Page Full Condition 

The page full condition occurs when attempting to enter data past the bottom line of the 
display. The page full condition is indicated by the following: 

1 . Additional keyboard entries are not displayed. 

2. The cursor disappears. 

3. A blinking "F" appears in the upper-left corner of the screen, above the home 
position. 

Clear the page full condition by pressing the HOME/PAGE key. The screen is erased and 
the blinking cursor appears at the home position. Refer to the Environmental Control 
section of the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual for information on program 
control alternatives when the page ful condition occurs. 



The Type Ahead Feature 

The type ahead feature enables you to enter a maximum of 28 entries when a page full 
condition has occurred or when the System is operating under program control and is not 
waiting for keyboard input. Its main purpose is to save the few characters you may 
inadvertently enter before you realize the page full condition exists. Pressing the 
HOME/PAGE key erases the screen and displays the typed-ahead characters. 

The type ahead feature allows you to (inter keyboard entries while waiting for the System 
to finish an operation (no cursor present). If you know that a keyboard response will be 
expected of you, you can save time by entering it into the line buffer before the System is 
ready to process it. When the System finishes its programmed operation, it will send the 
contents of the line buffer to the Processor and also display the line buffer contents on 
the screen. 

Type-ahead entries are limited to 28 characters or filling the line buffer, whichever occurs 
first. If you attempt to enter a 29th type-ahead character, the bell rings. If the line buffer is 
filled before the bell rings, the characters entered after it became full are lost, and the 
character occupying the 72nd line buffer position may not be what you expect it to be. 
Since type-ahead entries are not displayed immediately, it's a good idea to limit them to 
just a few characters. Also, when the Graphic System executes any of the following, it is 
possible that some or all of the characters in the line buffer will be lost: MARK, FIND 
TLIST, BREAK. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 9-9 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Intensity 

The display operates in either View Mode (normal intensity level) or Hold Mode (reduced 
intensity level). In View Mode, displayed data is easily visible on the screen. If no display 
activity occurs for about 1 1 seconds, the display goes into Hold Mode. In Hold Mode, 
data remains stored, but it becomes almost invisible and the cursor disappears. View 
Mode is re-established by any display storage activity or by pressing the SHIFT key. 

Automatic Paging (Erasing) 

Information remains on the screen in Hold Mode for approximately 30 minutes. If there is 
no System activity (4051/4052) or display activity (4054) within that time, the screen is 
paged (erased) automatically and View Mode is re-established. If no display activity 
occurs within about 1 1 seconds of that, Hold Mode recurs. The cycle repeats until 
further System activity (4051/4052) or display activity (4054) occurs or until System 
power is turned off. 
Character Size 

The 4051 /4052 Graphic Systems display only one character size. Display input and 
output are limited to 72 characters per line (the length of the line buffer) and 35 lines per 
page. The 4054 Graphic System can display four character sizes. The power-up default 
character size is 4, the largest size. To change the power-up default character size, 
contact your local Tektronix representative. 

Although the 4054 Graphic System can display four character sizes, display input is 
limited to 72 characters per line. Display output capabilities are shown in Table 9-1 . 

Table 9-1 
4054 GRAPHIC SYSTEM DISPLAY OUTPUT CAPABILITIES 



Character Size 


Characters Per Line 


Lines Per Page 


Characters Per Page 


4 (default) 

3 

2 

1 


72 
79 

119 
132 


35 
38 
58 
64 


2520 
3002 
6902 
8448 



The CHARSIZE statement, CHARSIZE n (where n = 1 , 2, 3, or 4), specifies character size 
for the 4054 Graphic System screen only. It does not alter character size for some 
optional peripherals such as a plotter. (Character size can be altered for a Tektronix 4660 
Series plotter with the Graphic System BASIC statement ALPHASCALE. Refer to the 4050 
Series Graphic Reference Manual for additional information.) 



9-10 



REVC.MAR 1980 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Vectors 

The MOVE, RMOVE, DRAW and RDRAW commands draw vectors on the display screen. 
Vectors are displayed as solid lines on the 4051/4052 Graphic System screens. On the 
4054 Graphic System screen they are displayed as solid lines unless altered by the 
DASH statement. The DASH statement specifies which of 36 dash patterns is selected. 
See the Graphics section of the 4050 Series Reference Manual for details of these and 
other statements used in graphics. For additional programming information, refer to the 
programming manuals: PLOT 50 Introduction to Programming in BASIC and PLOT 50 
Introduction to Graphic Programming ir BASIC. 

Addressable Units and Display Resolution 

Points on the screen to which the writing beam can be moved are addressable in two 
types of units: Graphic Display Units (GDUs) and user data units. A GDU is an internal 
unit of measurement that represents 1/1 30 of the X axis and 1 /1 00 of the Y axis. User 
data units are units specified by the user in a WINDOW statement. These may be anything 
you choose, such as days, weeks, monlhs, years, dollar amounts, items sold, etc. User 
data units depend on the specific user application. 

The writing beam addresses user data units unless none are specified. If none are 
specified, the writing beam addresses GDUs or their fractional parts. 

Although the 4051/4052 Graphic Systems can address approximately 1 20 points per 
inch and the 4054 Graphic System can address approximately 292 points per inch, the 
display resolution (ability to distinguish one written point or line from another) is 
approximately 40 points or lines per inch on each System. 

Control Descriptions 
Introduction 

The Graphic System keyboard controls and front panel indicators allow you to enter input 
from the keyboard, to control a program that is in progress, and to stay informed of the 
System's activity. The keyboard's primary function is as a source of information for the 
Processor; the indicator lights are a source of information for the user. 

The following information familiarizes you with the functions of these controls and 
indicators. The repeat-key feature repeats the function of a control if the key is pressed 
and held down; for example, holding down the X key prints X repeatedly across the 
screen. 

Figure 9-5 divides the keyboard controls into operational groups: the alphanumeric 
keyboard, the numeric keypad, the editing keys, the user definable keys, the AUTO 
NUMBER and STEP PROGRAM keys, the peripheral control keys, and the thumbwheels. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1 979 



9-11 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



EDITING KEYS AUT0 STEP — PERIPHERAL 

II NUMBER PROGRAM CONTROL KEYS 




ALPHANUMERIC KEYBOARD 



mHic 

KEYPAD 



A. 4051/4052 



USER DEFINABLE EDITING AUTO STEP PERIPHERAL 

..■'.:: -KEYS 




ALPHANUMERIC KEYBOARD 



\ 

KEYPAD THUMBWHEELS 



NUMERIC 



B. 4054 



Figure 9-5. Keyboard Controls. 



9-12 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Front Panel Indicators 

The four green indicator lights on the front panel (Figure 9-6) indicate the following status 
conditions when they are on. 



BUSY 

I/O 

BREAK 

POWER 



The System is busy transferring or processing data. 

An I/O (Input/Output) operation is in progress. 

A break in an operating program is pending. (The light goes out 
when the break occurs.) 

Power is supplied to the Graphic System. 



j'^^nmiiiViif^ pi||\ 







> INDICATOR 
LIGHTS 



1940-244 



Figure 9-6. Front Panel Indicators. 



The Alphanumeric Keyboard 



THE ALPHANUMERIC 
KEYS 



THE SPACE BAR 



SHIFT 



The alphanumeric keys (letters, numbers, and symbols) are used 
to enter data and BASIC statements and to generate control 
characters. (Keys 0-9 can be used to enter numeric data.) If your 
4050 Series Graphic System includes Option 1 , Data Communi- 
cations Interface, the alphanumeric keys can be used to 
communicate with a host computer. 

When the SPACE bar is pressed, the cursor moves one 
horizontal space to the right. No character is printed, although 
the ASCII Space character is placed in the line buffer. If the 
cursor is in the 72nd line buffer position, no operation is 
performed. 

This key is similar to the SHIFT key on a typewriter keyboard. It 
determines which of two characters is printed when an alphanu- 
meric key is pressed, or which of two functions is performed 
when an editing or user definable key is pressed. 

Pressing the SHIFT key by itself returns the display to View 
Mode from Hold Mode. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



9-13 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



TTY LOCK 



Pressing the TTY LOCK key causes all lower case ASCII alpha 
characters to be transmitted and displayed as upper case 
characters, regardless of the condition of the SHIFT key. The 
TTY LOCK key must be pressed again to release it from the lock 
condition. 



TAB 



When the TAB key is pressed, the keyboard issues the ASCII 
control character Tab. The tab function is executed only as part 
of a PRINT statement (for example, by executing a PRINT 'T' 
statement). The cursor moves to the right and stops at the next 
tab position. If there are no more tab positions on the current 
display line, the System tabs to character position 1 on the next 
line. 

The Tab character prints on the display as an underlined I, J. 
Tab positions are provided every 18 spaces. The 4051/4052 
Graphic System tab positions are at character positions 1,19, 
37, and 55. Table 9-2 shows the tab positions for the 4054 
Graphic System. 



Table 9-2 
4054 GRAPHIC SYSTEM TAB POSITIONS 



Character Size 


1 


19 




Tab Positions 








4 (default) 


37 


55 










3 


1 


19 


37 


55 


73 








2 


1 


19 


37 


55 


73 


91 


109 




1 


1 


19 


37 


55 


73 


91 


109 


127 



CTRL 



To send a control character, hold down the CTRL key while 
pressing an alpha key or one of the following: [, \, ], T, or RUB 
OUT. When a control character is entered from the keyboard, the 
keyboard issues the corresponding ASCII control character. It is 
displayed as an underlined letter (except CTRL M which issues 
the Carriage Return character and displays no character on the 
screen , and CTRL RUB OUT which issues the Carriage 
Return/Linefeed character and displays only an underline, _, on 
the screen). All 32 ASCII control characters can be generated by 
the keyboard. At statement execution time, some control 
characters have an effect on display functions. These are shown 
in Table 9-3. 



9-14 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Table 9-3 
EFFECT OF CONTROL CHARACTERS ON THE DISPLAY 3 



Control 


Keyboard 


Displayed 


Function 


Character 


Input 


Character 


Performed 


BEL (Bell) 


CTRLG 


G 


Rings bell. 


BS (Backspace) 


CTRLH 


H 


Backspaces the cursor. 


HT (Horizontal Tab) 


CTRLI 


1 


Tabs the cursor to 








the next tab stop. 


LF (Linefeed) 


CTRL J 


_J 


Moves the cursor 
down one line. 


VT (Vertical Tab) 


CTRLK 


K 


Moves the cursor up 








one line. 


FF (Form Feed) 


CTRLL 


L 


Erases the screen 
and moves the cursor 
to the home position. 


CR (Carriage Return) 


CTRLM 


Does not display 


Moves the cursor to 






character 


the left margin and 
down one vertical 
space. Sends the line 
buffer contents to the 
Processor. (Performs 
the same function as 








the RETURN key.) 


RS (Record 


CTRL t 


t 


Returns the cursor to 


Separator) 






the home position. 


CR/LF (Carriage 


CTRL RUB OUT 




Moves the cursor to 


Return/Linefeed 






the left margin and 
down one vertical 








space. 



a These control character functions (except carriage return) cannot be executed unless they are part of a 
PRINT statement. Refer to the PRINT statement in the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual for 
details. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HEV B.APR 1979 



9 15 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



ESC 



Pressing the ESC key places the ASCII control character Esc in 
the line buffer. The Esc character prints on the Graphic System 
display as [. 



HOME/PAGE 



Pressing the HOME/PAGE key by itself erases the display and 
returns the blinking rectangle or blinking question mark cursor 
to the home position. Pressing the HOME/PAGE key has no 
effect on the contents of the line buffer. 



Holding the SHIFT key down while pressing the HOME/PAGE 
key returns the blinking rectangle or blinking question mark 
cursor to the home position without erasing the display. 



BACK SPACE 



Pressing the BACK SPACE key moves the cursor one character 
position to the left. 



RETURN 



Pressing the RETURN key issues the ASCII control character 
CR, causing everything that is in the line buffer to be sent to the 
Processor. The cursor returns to the left margin of the next line. 
The Processor evaluates the statement received from the line 
buffer. If the statement is syntactically correct and contains a line 
number, the statement is sent to memory (RAM) as part of a 
program. It is not executed until a RUN statement is entered. If 
the statement does not contain a line number and is syntactical- 
ly correct, it is executed immediately. 



The RETURN key function can be duplicated by simultaneously 
pressing the CTRL and M keys. 



LF 



Pressing the LF key causes no immediate display function other 
than printing the LF control character symbol, J, as an indication 
that a LF control character has been entered. The LF control 
character cannot be executed unless it is part of a PRINT 
statement. 



9-16 



REV B.APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



RUB OUT Pressing the RUB OUT key causes the character beneath the 

cursor to be replaced with the Space character. If no character 
is displayed beneath the cursor, the cursor backspaces one 
character position and then performs its function if a character 
is displayed ir. that position. 

On the 4051 /4052 Graphic System screen, the cursor writes a 
full 5 X 8 dot matrix over any characters replaced by the Space 
character during the rub out operation. On the 4054 Graphic 
System screen, a cursor-size rectangle writes over the re- 
placed character. Reprinting the line causes a space to appear 
instead of a 5 X 8 matrix or a rectangle. 

BREAK The BREAK key is used to interrupt a program. Two levels of 

interrupt are provided: a program interrupt and a program abort. 
For a program interrupt, press the BREAK key once. This causes 
the BREAK indicator on the front panel to light up. Program 
execution stops after the current BASIC line, an interrupt 
message appears on the screen, and the BREAK light goes out. 
To restart the program at the point of interruption, enter RUN 
followed by the line number that is printed in the message and 
press RETURN. 

For a program abort, press the BREAK key twice in quick 
succession or press it once while the BREAK light is on. Program 
execution is aborted immediately. 



NOTE 



Pressing the BREAK key as described does not 
perform an immediate interrupt if the program is 
executing a statement which involves tape move- 
ment. The interrupt occurs when the System 
finishes executing that statement. 



To restart the program at the beginning, enter RUN and press 
RETURN. Attempting to restart the program at the point of 
interruption rray give you questionable results, depending on the 
operation in progress when the interrupt occurred. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 9-17 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Character Font Selection 

The 4051 Graphic System displays six character fonts, and the 4052/4054 Graphic 
Systems each display eight character fonts. Each 4050 Graphic System powers up with 
the ASCII font. To change the character font on the 4051 Graphic System, use the PRINT 
statement: 



PRINT @ 32,1 8:n 



where n = the font code 



Table 9-4 shows the 4051 Graphic System character fonts, the font codes, and the 
special characters that can be displayed in each font. It also shows the key(s) to press to 
select these characters and the ASCII Decimal Equivalent (ADE) for each character. (The 
CHR, Character, function requires an ADE value. Refer to the 4050 Series Graphic 
System Reference Manual for more information about the CHR function.) 

Table 9-4 
4051 GRAPHIC SYSTEM CHARACTER FONTS 



ASCII DECIMAL 
EQUIVALENT 


91 


123 


93 


125 


35 


36 


92 


124 


64 


CODE 


FONT 


m 


















- ■- -r 

iSHIFTl 


s - 1 

iSHIFTj 


^HIFTj 


[sHIFTl 


v — - J 

SHIFT] 


Mi 






1 $f 


hi 




m 












id 





ASCII 


W" 

H... 


• 
• 


— H 

• * 

• • 

• • 

•••IS 


• 


• • 
••••• 

• • 

..... 

• » 


•••• 
••• 

• 


\ 




• • 


1 


Scandinavian 


: ..i. 


• •••* 


• ••• 


! :,: l 


.:... 


!•••! 


• •• 

• • 


• • 


• • 


2 


German 


*..:. 


:...: 






• • 








•::* 


3 


General 
European 


II... 


•• 
• 


•• 
•• 
•• 


• 


.:..' 


:•••: 


•. 




:••! 


4 


Spanish 


• 


•• 


•...• 


• 


• 


:•••: 


Kl 




•*"" 


5 


Graphic 


IT" 

•• 

n... 


.::.. 


•♦•ii 

•• 

•* 

•• 

••»*■ 


,:.y 


• ••«• 
••••• 
••••• 
•••■• 
••••• 

• •••• 


• 
•••• 

■*• 

••«•* 


'\ 


••• 


;••: 



1940-249 

To change the character font on the 4052/4054 Graphic System, use the PRINT 
statement as explained for the 4051 Graphic System or use the FONT statement: 



FONTn 



where n = the font code 



9-18 



REV C. MAR 1980 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Table 9-5 shows the 4052/4054 Graphic System character fonts, the font codes, the 
special characters that can be displayed in each font, and the key(s) to press to select 
these characters. 

Table 9-5 

KEY SELECTIONS FOR 4052/4054 GRAPHIC 
SYSTEM CHARACTER FONTS 












H 


















| ' " 1 




7— f 

iSHIFTJ 








> 

ISHIFTJ 


1 ^ 

ISHIFTJ 


[SHI FTJ 


CODE 


FONT 


w 




M 




W 




m 


w 


ut 


;n 





ASCII 


• * 
••••• 

: > 


Pi 

••• 


• • * 

; »• 

••• 


•• 

a 


• 


...» 

!: 

•••r 


•ft 
ft 

ft* 


I 

ft 

: 

• 
• 


• 
• 

:** 

*• 


1 


Swedish 


i'i" 


«• : 

•»• 


••• 
• • 
• » • 


• • 
• • 


• • 


• • 


ft ft 

{•••• 


• •• 


:"': 


2 


German 


• • 


t.'i 
r :: 

••• 


• • • 
: tt* 

• 
••• 


• • 


• • 
•*• 

• * 


: ... : 


• ft 
ft ft 

..... 


"•••* 


*•*•" 


3 


British 


• • 
• 
•••ft 

* 
••••• 


ft ft n 

»• s 

••• 


• • • 

pi- 

••• 


•• 

H 

••**• 


• 


...» 

•• 


ft 
* 
•• 
ft 
•ft 


: 

: 

• 
• 


•• 
• 
• 

t" 

•• 


4 


Spanish 


t : 
.j.j. 


••• 

• •''" 

* ft ■:■ 

:• i 

••• 


• 
•*• 




••••• 

ft • 
•• • 
S • • 
ft •• 

• • 


••••• 


ft 

• 

•ft 

ft 

•ft 


• 
• 


•• 


5 


Graphic 


: t 

••••• 

• • 


••• 
• •■' 

t # "i ; 

• ft* 


*•• 
••• 


*• 

a 

•••*• 


• 
• 


•• 


••••ft 


•••• 


••••• 


6 


Reserved 


Same a; 


iFONTO 


7 


Reserved 


Same as 


FONTO 


8 


Business 


.:... 


• i 

ft « 

I i 


1 * ,: 

••• 


•• 
•• 

K 

• •••ft 


\ # 


...j t 

B 

•••tt 


•ft 

": 

•• 


• 
• 
: 

• 


♦* 

• 
•ft 

t 

•• 


9 


Danish 


• • 

• • 
• •••• 

• • 

• • 


• ! 

• 4 

t i 

• •• 


• • • 

: «• 


ftftftftft 

!H 

• •* 





• • 


••• 

***** 

• • 


••• 


• » 

• • 



NOTE 

I ) I 

The TTY LOCK key affects the[,], and \ keys in fonts 1, 2, and 9 on the 

4052/4054 Graphic Systems. When the TTY LOCK key is pressed, an 

uppercase letter will print when you press one of these keys, regardless of 

whether the SHIFT key is pressed. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



9-19 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Table 9-6 shows the 4052/4054 Graphic System character fonts, the font codes, the 
special characters that can be displayed in each font, and the ASCII Decimal Equivalent 
(ADE) for each of these characters. (The CHR, Character, function requires an ADE value. 
Refer to the 4050 Series Graphic Reference Manual for more information about the CHR 
function.) 

Table 9-6 

ASCII DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS FOR 
4052/4054 GRAPHIC SYSTEM CHARACTER FONTS 



CODE 


ASCII 

DECIMAL 

EQUIVALENT 


35 


48 


64 


91 


92 


93 


123 


124 


125 





ASCII 


• • 

•*+ 

• •••• 

t : 


••• 

: .i 

• • t 

r : 

**• 


• • • 

ill* 


H 


• 


•'•« 
•••» 


» 


t 

• 
• 


•• 

: 

•• 


1 


Swedish 


: t 
..... 

• • 


••• 
• • * 

r ## : 


••• 

w 

••• 


:...: 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• * 

• • 


:"! 


••• 

: : 

• •• 


• • 

• • 


2 


German 


•••• 
•••a* 


• • * 
••• 


• • • 

••• 


* * 


• • 


• • 


• • 
••* 


• • 


•...• 


3 


British 


•• 
• • 


»• i 

••• 


••• 

:. : 


„... 

*• 

H 

..... 


\ 


...„ 

•• 


•* 
« 

• 


• 
• 

t 

• 
• 


*• 
• 
• 


4 


Spanish 


:: 

• • 

• • 


••• 

1 •» 

* • i 
r : 

••• 


• • • 

... 


• 


• • 
S* • 

• • • 

• •• 

• • 


• 


• 

••I 

•• 


• 
* 

: 

• 
« 


— 
• 
•• 

! 

•• 


5 


Graphic 


: t 

••••• 

it 


••• 

• *• 

• • 1 


.*•• 


g... 

•• 

K 


• 
• 


"\\ 

•• 
...XI 


.:|.. 


• • 


• •••• 


6 


Reserved 


Same as FONT 


7 


Reserved 


Same as FONT 


8 


Business 


.:.." 


• • 


• • « 


•* 

H 


\ 


!: 

•■•X* 


•• 
• 

•• 


* 
• 


• 
• 
• • 


9 


Danish 


: : 

••••• 

• » 


••* 
: t 

• • 

i : 

••• 


• » • 

• 


• * 

1 u. 


I*** • 

• •• 

* * f 

••• 


• 
• • 


r|3 

• •• 





» • 



The power-up default font (font 0, the ASCII font) can be changed on the 4054 
Graphic System only. To change the power-up default font, contact your local 
Tektronix representative. 



9-20 



REV B.NOV 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



The Numeric Keypad 

The numeric keypad is located to the right of the alphanumeric keyboard. It is used to 
enter numeric data and perform mathematical operations: exponentiation, division, 
multiplication, subtraction and addition When the numeric keypad is used as a calculator, 
without a BASIC program, pressing the RETURN key causes the calculated result to print 
on the screen. 

Although math operations can be generated from the alphanumeric keyboard, the numeric 
keypad is provided as an operator convenience. It provides the following: 1 numeric 
keys, five math operator keys, a decimal point, parentheses, and ENTER EXP (for 
scientific notation). 

The last part of this section contains a few instructions on performing general math 
functions. You can refer to this for general information, or you can refer to the Math 
Operations section in the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual for details on 
math operations. 



The Editing Keys 

The group of keys at the top center of the keyboard (Figure 9-7) are the editing keys. 
These keys allow convenient editing of data entry and BASIC statements. All operations 
are performed on the current contents of the line buffer: a keyboard entry or a program 
statement recalled from the program currently in RAM. (The contents of RAM are not 
changed until the RETURN key is pressed to send the edited line to RAM.) 

The five editing keys provide control for ten different editing functions. The function 
shown below each key is performed by simply pressing the key. The function shown 
above each key is performed by pressing the editing key while holding down the SHIFT 
key. 



EDITING 
KEYS 




imt&iWfimpm ill! 



1 940-245 



Figure 9 7. The Editing Keys. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HEVA, APR 1979 



9-21 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Following are explanations of the functions of the editing keys. Notice that the rub out, 
backspace, and space functions can also be performed with keys on the alphanumeric 
keyboard. 



COMPRESS 




EXPAND 



COMPRESS. Pressing this key while holding down the SHIFT 
key removes any spaces between the cursor position and the 
next non-space character in the line buffer. The portion of the 
line to the right of the screen is shifted to the current position of 
the cursor. After pressing SHIFT-COMPRESS, press RETURN to 
enter the line into memory if all editing functions are completed. 



EXPAND. Pressing this key by itself causes the character 
beneath the cursor and all characters to the right of the cursor to 
move to the extreme right of the line buffer. On the screen, the 
line appears to split into left and right portions separated by a 
gap. The cursor remains at the extreme left of the gap. 
Characters may now be inserted. 



RUB OUT 



<o> 



BACK 
SPACE 



RUB OUT. Pressing this key while holding down the SHIFT key 
is equivalent to pressing the RUB OUT key on the alphanumeric 
keyboard. If a character is displayed beneath the cursor, it is 
replaced with the Space character. If a character is not 
displayed beneath the cursor, the cursor backspaces one 
character position and then performs its function if a character 
is displayed in that location. See the explanation of the RUB OUT 
key in the description of the alphanumeric keyboard. 



Pressing this key by itself duplicates the function of the BACK 
SPACE key on the alphanumeric keyboard; the cursor moves 
one character position to the left. 



RUB OUT 

*- 



£=) 



SPACE 



RUB OUT. Pressing this key while hold ing down the SHIFT key 
is equivalent to pressing the RUB OUT editing key except that 
the cursor moves to the right instead of the left. If a character is 
displayed beneath the cursor, it is replaced with a space 
character. If a character is not displayed beneath the cursor, the 
cursor moves one character position to the right and then 
performs its function if a character is displayed in that position. 



SPACE. Pressing this key by itself is equivalent to pressing the 
SPACE bar on the alphanumeric keyboard. The cursor moves 
one character space to the right. If the cursor is in the 72nd line 
buffer position, no operation is performed. 



9-22 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



REPRINT 



<Q 



CLEAR 



REPRINT. Pressing this key while holding down the SHIFT key 
displays the current contents of the line buffer on the next 
display line. The cursor also moves down one line while retaining 
its position in the line. 

This provides a good tool to use when a line has type-overs, 
rubouts, etc. Pressing SHIFT-REPRINT provides a "clean" line to 
check before pressing the RETURN key. 



CLEAR. Pressing this key by itself clears (erases) the contents 
of the line buffer. This is a good tool to use when it's easier to 
rewrite a statement than to edit it. 



RECALL 
NEXT LINE 



S 



RECALL 
LINE 



RECALL NEXT LINE. Entering a line number and then pressing 
this key while holding down the SHIFT key recalls a specific 
program line stored in RAM and places a copy of it into the line 
buffer. The line recalled is the statement numerically following 
the number you entered (the statement with the next ascending 
line number). The cursor is positioned at the end of the recalled 
line. 



User Definable Keys 



RECALL LINE;. Entering a line number and then pressing this 
key alone recalls that program line from RAM and places a copy 
of it into the line buffer. The cursor is positioned at the end of the 
recalled line. You can perform your editing functions and then 
press RETURN to replace the initial line with the edited line. 



The 1 user definable keys on the upper-left of the keyboard (Figure 9-8) allow the user 
to branch to any of 20 specific BASIC program locations. Ten locations are available by 
pressing each of the 1 user definable keys alone; ten more are available by holding 
down the SHIFT key while pressing each user definable key. 



USER DEFINABLE 
KEYS 




WfflffifflUMJP8 R % 111 




4050 SERIES OPERATOFrS 



Figure 9-8. User Definable Keys. 

REV A, APR 1979 



9-23 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



The user definable keys provide a convenient means of interrupting the main program to 
perform a subroutine already placed in memory by the user. (The System finishes 
executing the current BASIC line before performing the suboutine.) 

To write a program that uses the user definable keys, begin with line number 1 00. One of 
the early program statements must be the SET KEY statement to allow the System to 
respond to the user definable keys while the program is executing. Pressing one of the 
user definable keys is the same as executing a GOSUB statement: the main program is 
interrupted and program control is transferred to the program line number that is four 
times the number of the user definable key pressed. These numbers are fixed and cannot 
be changed. Figure 9-9 shows the line number to which program control is transferred 
when each user definable key is pressed (in a program with SET KEY established). 



User Definable 
Key 



Line 
Number 



m 


| 


1 


m 


'¥*WS:¥::|:::| 


2 


m. 


3 


m 


■>y ::;>:>¥ ¥>:i:| 


4 


IS¥ 


:¥:¥:¥:¥¥¥:¥ 1 


5 


m 


:¥:¥:¥:¥:¥¥:¥| 


6 


t::s 


¥¥¥¥¥:¥¥;¥| 


7 


I I 


8 


I I 


9 


I "J 



10 



4 
















8 
















12 
















16 
















2C/ 
















24 
















28 
















32 
















36 
















40 



















User 


Definable 
Key 

11 


SHIFT 


|:S 


mm 1 




12 


shift ';■; 


[m 


J 




13 


SHIFT 


[¥i¥. 


..¥:,:¥:::J 




14 


v: SHIFTS 


liiiV 


mmm 




15 


SHIFT ■: 


|S¥!: 


¥:¥¥¥¥¥:¥::! 




16 


SHIFT 


1m- 


1 




17 


S SHIFT i;!; 


|¥¥- 


¥¥¥¥¥:¥X¥:| 




18 


xj: SHIFT ¥ 


|i¥¥: 


:¥¥¥¥¥¥¥¥:| 




19 


i¥i SHIFT 'i 


\m 


i 




20 


| SHIFT ¥ 


|SS 


mmm 



Line 
Number 



44 
















48 
















52 
















56 
















60 1 
















64 
















68 
















72 
















76 
















80 

















Figure 9-9. User Definable Key Program Control Transfer. 



9-24 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



The subroutine begins with the statement to which control is transferred and continues to 
execute statements in sequential order until an END, STOP, or RETURN statement is 
found or until the BREAK key is pressed. If none of these occur before line number 1 00 is 
reached, the System continues into the main program (which begins at line number 1 00). 
When a user defined function ends with a RETURN statement, program control is 
transferred back to the interrupt point n the main program. 

Control can be passed from one subroutine line to another subroutine (for example, to a 
larger one) with a GOSUB statement. Figure 9-1 shows how this looks. 



15 



20 


GOSUB 500 


21 


RETURN 


22 




23 






MAIN 
PROGRAM 



INTERRUPT 
POINT 



SUBROUTINE 



RETURN 



Figure 9-10. Transferring Control Between Subroutines. 



User Definable Key Number 5 transfers program control to line number 20, a GOSUB 500 
instruction. Line 20 then transfers control to line 500, the beginning of a large subroutine. 
When the larger subroutine is finished executing, a RETURN statement transfers program 
control back to line 21 , which is also a RETURN statement. Line 21 then transfers 
program control back to the interruption point in the main program. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



9-25 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



AUTO NUMBER and STEP PROGRAM 



AUTO NUMBER 



The AUTO NUMBER key (Figure 9-1 1 ) provides an operator 
convenience when entering BASIC program statements. 
Pressing the key once instructs the System to provide line 
numbers automatically for each BASIC statement entry from the 
keyboard. The first time the key is pressed, line number 1 00 is 
placed in the line buffer and appears on the display. After you 
enter a BASIC statement and press the RETURN key, the System 
then places line number 1 1 in the line buffer for the next 
statement entry. The line number increment is automatically set 
at 1 0. When you no longer want automatic line numbering, press 
the AUTO NUMBER key again. 




AUTO 
NUMBER 

STEP 
PROGRAM 



1940-247 

Figure 9-11. The AUTO NUMBER Key and the STEP PROGRAM Key. 

To start the auto numbering sequence with a line number other 
than 1 00, enter the desired line number and press the AUTO 
NUMBER key. The System then provides line numbers starting 
with that number and incrementing by 10. 

To specify increments other than the default increment of 10, 
follow the beginning line number with the desired increment 
number. For example, typing 1 50,5 and then pressing the AUTO 
NUMBER key provides automatic line numbering beginning with 
line number 1 50 and incrementing by 5. 



9-26 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



STEP PROGRAM 



Pressing the STEP PROGRAM key (Figure 9-1 1 ) allows the 
operator to monitor execution of the BASIC program in RAM 
during debugging operations. Instead of using the RUN com- 
mand, press the STEP PROGRAM key. Each time the key is 
pressed, one line in the program is executed. 



To begin execution other than at the beginning of a program, 
enter a GO TO statement and specify the line number of the 
statement wilh which execution is to begin. For example, 
entering GO TO 500 and pressing the RETURN key causes the 
System to execute the program from line number 500. The 
program executes one step at a time as the STEP PROGRAM key 
is pressed repeatedly. 

Refer to the ^050 Series Graphic Reference Manual for a 
description of the SET TRACE command, which is especially 
useful with the STEP PROGRAM key. 



Peripheral Control Keys 



Figure 9-1 2 shows the peripheral conlrol keys. 



J 




WVjfM^wfimm p^\ 



AUTO LOAD 



REWIND 



MAKE COPY 



1940-248 



Figure 9-1 2. The Peripheral Control Keys. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



9-27 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



AUTO LOAD 



Pressing the AUTO LOAD key rewinds the internal magnetic 
tape, locates the first ASCII program on the tape, loads the 
program into the Graphic System memory (RAM), and begins 
executing the program. (The program doesn't have to be located 
in the first tape file.) Refer to the Input/Output Operations 
section in the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual 
for more information on magnetic tape operations. 



REWIND 



Pressing the REWIND key causes the System to rewind the tape 
cartridge in the magnetic tape unit. Pressing this key is the same 
as executing the BASIC statement FIND 0. 



MAKE COPY 



Pressing the MAKE COPY key causes an attached hard copy 
unit (an optional peripheral) to make a paper copy of the 
information on the display. Pressing this key is the same as 
executing the BASIC statement COPY. 



The Thumbwheels (4054 Only) 

The thumbwheels, located at the right of the 4054 keyboard (Figure 9-5B), control the 
movement of the full screen crosshair graphic cursor. To place the graphic cursor on the 
screen, enter the POINTER statement as follows and press RETURN: 

POINTER A,B,C$ 

This displays the crosshair cursor with the intersection of the crosshairs indicating the 
present position of the graphic point. (The graphic point is normally used as a reference 
for drawing vectors.) 

Moving the thumbwheels as indicated by the arrows on the keyboard moves the graphic 
cursor left, right, up, and down. Refer to the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference 
Manual for detailed POINTER statement information. 



9-28 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Math Operations 

Introduction 

This section introduces you to the mathematical capabilities of the 4050 Series Graphic 
System. Refer to the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual and the Introduction 
to Programming in BASIC Manual for detailed information about mathematical operations. 

The typical math operations are provided by the t (exponentiation), / (division),* 
(multiplication), - (subtraction), and + (addition) keys. There are also nine standard 
math functions, six trigonometric functions, and twenty-six user-definable math functions 
(not to be confused with the user definable keys) available. In addition, the 4051 Graphic 
System provides one matrix function, and the 4052/4054 Graphic Systems each provide 
six matrix functions. 

First, let's define the fundamental numerical terms associated with the Graphic System: 
real numbers (integers, standard notation, and scientific notation), numeric constants, and 
numeric variables. 

Real Numbers. The Graphic System treats every number as a real decimal number; that 
is, as a number that can be negative or positive and may or may not have a fractional part 
to the right of the decimal point. The numbers 5, 9.86, -.043, and 65000 are examples of 
real numbers. 

INTEGERS Integers are real numbers that have no fractional parts. The 

numbers 1,-2, 3, and 4 are integers. 

STANDARD NOTATION Numbers written in standard notation are written with all digits 

displayed; for example, 3280000.00 is a number written in 
standard notation. No embedded spaces are allowed. 

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION When a number is too big or too small to manage conveniently 
(E FORMAT) with standard notation, it is converted to scientific notation. 

Numbers written in scientific notation have a fractional part 
called the mantissa and a power of ten part called the exponent. 
For example, 3.28E+6 is a number written in scientific notation; 
3.28 is the mantissa, and E + 6 is the exponent. The number 
3.28E + 6 is the same as 3.28x1 6 , which is the same as 
3280000.00. The number range of the Graphic System extends 
from approximately — 1.0E + 308 to approximately 1.0E + 308. 
The mantissa must be less than 1 5 characters. No embedded 
spaces are allowed with the exception of one space following the 
E. This space implies the presence of a plus ( + ) sign; the plus 
sign entry is optional, and a minus (— ) sign may be entered as 
necessary. 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 9-29 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Numeric Constants. A numeric constant is any real number entered as numeric data. 
Numeric constants can be written in standard notation or scientific notation. The plus ( + ) 
or minus (— ) sign associated with the number is considered part of the number. 

Numeric Variables. Numeric variables are symbols that represent numeric constants. For 
example, assume the numeric constant 5 is assigned to the numeric variable X and the 
BASIC interpreter evaluates a BASIC statement containing the variable X. The BASIC 
interpreter replaces the X with its assigned value (5) before the statement is evaluated. 
Specifically, if X = 5 and the BASIC interpreter evaluates the equation Y = XT2, the 
variable X is replaced with 5, and the result (25) is assigned to the numeric variable Y. If X 
does not have an assigned value when the equation Y = XT2 is evaluated, an undefined 
variable error occurs. 

There are 286 possible symbols which can represent numeric constants. All twenty -six 
upper case letters (A-Z) are valid symbols. Also, an upper case letter followed by a digit 
from 0-9 is valid. For example, A, A0, A1 , A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8 and A9 are all valid 
symbols. Eleven possibilities exist for each letter of the alphabet, as just shown with the 
letter A, for a total of 286 possible symbols. If a lower case letter is entered as a numeric 
variable, the BASIC interpreter automatically converts it to upper case. 

Numeric constants are assigned (by the operator or under program control) to numeric 
variables with the LET statement, the INPUT statement, and the READ statement. For a 
discussion of these statements refer to the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference 
Manual. 

Numeric functions and numeric expressions can also be assigned to numeric variables as 
long as the function or expression can be reduced to a numeric constant. In addition, a 
numeric variable can assume a succession of values over a period of time, but it can 
represent only one value at a given time. 

Numeric Range. For all practical purposes, the limits of the Graphic System are —8.98 X 
1 307 and +8.98 X 1 307 . It is difficult to imagine any practical problem that yields these 
numbers; however, it is possible to place the System in an over-range condition. In such 
cases, an appropriate error message will be displayed. Refer to the Error Message 
Appendix for explanations of error messages generated by the System. 

Arithmetic Operations 

The most commonly used mathematical operations are provided by the + (addition), — 
(subtraction), * (multiplication), / (division), and t (exponentiation) keys. If the mathemati- 
cal operation is in a statement not preceded by a line number, the results are immediately 
displayed when the RETURN key is pressed. If the operation is part of a BASIC program 
(the statement is preceded by a line number), the results are not calculated until the 
program is executed. 



9-30 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Before doing the following examples, empty the line buffer by pressing the CLEAR key. 
Begin with simple addition: 

ENTER 5 + 4 
PRESS RETURN 

The display returns the answer, 9. Now subtract: 

ENTER 5-4 
PRESS RETURN 

The answer, 1, is displayed on the screen. Try multiplying: 

ENTER 5*4 
PRESS RETURN 

The display shows the answer, 20. Now divide: 

ENTER 20/4 
PRESS RETURN 

Note the answer, 5, on the display. Now do an exponentiation function: 

ENTER 5T2 
PRESS RETURN 

The screen displays 25. 

As you can see, the Graphic System is designed to accept arithmetic instructions in a 
conventional manner. However, there are some other things you need to keep in mind 
when performing arithmetic operations, namely, hierarchy and the translating of algebraic 
expressions into BASIC. 

Hierarchy. The Graphic System is designed to recognize priority, or hierarchy, for 
arithmetic operators. Multiplying and dividing are higher order operators than adding and 
subtracting. The System recognizes this;. As far as you are concerned, this means that 
mathematical statements can be entered and executed according to the conventions of 
mathematics. Consider the equation Y == A + B X C. When verbally expressing the 
relationships between A, B, and C, care must be taken to avoid misinterpretations. For 
example, does the expression mean "A plus the quantity B times C," or does it mean "C 
times the quantity A plus B"? These expressions are different and only one is correct. 
The Graphic System interprets relationships of this kind without misinterpretations by 
using the hierarchy of arithmetic operators long established as part of everyday 
mathematics. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S HEV A, APR 1979 9-31 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Table 9-7 shows the five arithmetic operators. The Relative Hierarchy column refers to 
the priority of the arithmetic operators. 



Table 9-7 



HIERARCHY OF ARITHMETIC OPERATORS 



Operator 


Operation 


Relative Hierarchy 


1 


Exponentiation 
Multiplication 


1 


* 


2 


/ 


Division 


2 


+ 


Addition 


3 


— 


Subtraction 


3 



When an arithmetic expression is evaluated, exponentiation is performed first, then 
multiplication and division, then addition and subtraction. Equal priority operators are 
evaluated left-to-right. In writing arithmetic expressions, you must be aware of the 
hierarchy of the operators you are using. 

Translating Algebraic Expressions into BASIC. Care must be exercised in translating 
algebraic expressions into BASIC. Table 9-8 translates several algebraic statements into 
BASIC. 

Table 9-8 

TRANSLATING ALGEBRAIC STATEMENTS INTO BASIC 



Algebraic 



4B - 3C 
X 2 + 3Y 4 
6X - 1.2Y 



BASIC 

4*B - 3*C 
XT2 + 3*YT4 

6*X - 1 .2*Y/Z 



9-32 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Note that arithmetic expressions are represented in BASIC by a single line of numbers 
and symbols. This can present some difficulties in translating an expression like the 
following: 

4X + 7 
2X - 3 

A first attempt to convert this expression into an arithmetic expression in BASIC might 
yield this: 

4*X + 7/2*X - 3 

This comes out to be interpreted as: 

4X + 7X - 3 
2 

The problem can be resolved through the use of parentheses: 

(4*X + 7)/(2*X - 3) 

Parentheses are used in BASIC as they are used in conventional algebraic notation. Table 
9-9 provides some examples. 



Table 9-9 



PARENTHESES IN BASIC ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 



Algebraic 



Y - 3 
4Q 



P - 14 + 3P 
5R 



( 5X-3Y) 2 
2X 

•JA2 + B2 



BASIC 

(Y - 3)/(4*Q) 

(P - 14)/(5*R) + 3*P 



(5*X - 3*Y)T2/(2*X) 



SQR (AT2 + BT2) 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



9-33 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 

Parentheses clarify execution order. For example, in the expression 

2XV +1 
you might be tempted to write: 

2*XTY + 1 
This is equivalent to: 

2XV + 1 
Using parentheses to write this, we have: 

2*Xt(Y + 1) 

A frequent error in writing arithmetic expressions is that the number of left parentheses 
does not equal the number of right parentheses, as in the following: 

((A + B)/(A - B)T2 

which should be: 

((A + B)/(A - B))T2 



9-34 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Math Functions 

Table 9-1 presents the standard math functions provided by a 4050 Series Graphic 
System. 



Table 9-10 



MATH FUNCTIONS 



Function 


Purpose 


ABS (Absolute Value) 


Returns the absolute value of the specified numeric 
expression. 


EXP (Exponent) 


Returns the value of e (the natural logarithm base) raised 
to the power specified by the numeric expression. 


INT (Integer) 


Returns the largest integer possible without exceeding 
the value of the specified numeric expression. 


LGT (Logarithm Base 10) 


Returns the logarithm of the specified numeric expres- 
sion to the base 1 0. 


LOG (Logarithm Base e) 


Returns the logarithm of the specified numeric expres- 
sion to the base e (the natural logarithm base). 


PI (77) 


Returns the value 3.1 41 59265359. 


RND (Random Number) 


Returns a random number between and 1 . 


SGN (Signum or Sign) 


Returns -1-1 if the specified numeric expression is 
positive, if the specified numeric expression is zero, 
and —1 if the specified numeric expression is negative. 


SQR (Square Root) 


Returns the square root of the specified numeric 
expression. 



The Math Operations section of the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual 
explains the math functions in detail and provides examples. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



935 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Trigonometric Functions 

Trigonometry provides a method of finding the values of the remaining angles and sides of 
a right triangle when only a few angles and sides are known. Table 9-1 1 explains the six 
trigonometric functions available for use in math operations. 

Table 9-11 



Function 



SIN (Sine) 



COS (Cosine) 



TAN (Tangent) 



ASN (Arc Sine) 



ACS (Arc Cosine) 



TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 



ATN (Arc Tangent) 



Purpose 



This function reduces the specified numeric expression to a 
numeric constant, interprets the numeric constant as an angle, 
and returns the sine of the angle expressed in the current 
trigonometric units for the System. 

This function reduces the specified numeric expression to a 
numeric constant, interprets the numeric constant as an angle, 
and returns the cosine of the angle expressed in the current 
trigonometric units for the System. 



This function reduces the specified numeric expression to a 
numeric constant, interprets the numeric constant as an angle, 
and returns the tangent of the angle expressed in the current 
trigonometric units for the System. 



This function reduces the specified numeric expression to a 
numeric constant, interprets the numeric constant as the sine of 
an angle, and returns the angle expressed in the current 
trigonometric units for the System. 

This function reduces the specified numeric expression to a 
numeric constant, interprets the numeric constant as the cosine 
of an angle, and returns the angle expressed in the current 
trigonometric units for the System. 



This function reduces the specified numeric expression to a 
numeric constant, interprets the numeric constant as the tangent 
of an angle, and returns the angle expressed in the current 
trigonometric unit for the System. 



The Math Operations section of the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual 
explains each of these trigonometric functions in detail and provides examples. 



9-36 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



KEYS, BUTTONS, AND SWITCHES 



Matrix Functions 

Table 9-1 2 shows the matrix functions provided by the 4052 Graphic System and the 
4054 Graphic System. The only matrix function available in the 4051 graphic system is 
the SUM function. The SUM function algebraically adds the elements of the specified 
array and returns their sum to a numeric expression or to the Graphic System display. 



Table 9-1 2 



4052/4054 GRAPHIC SYSTEM MATRIX FUNCTIONS 



Function 


Purpose 


DET (Determinant) 


This function returns the value of the determinant. 


IDN (Identity) 


This routine creates a matrix whose elements are 1 's along the 
diagonal and O's elsewhere. 


INV (Inverse) 


This function performs matrix inversion and solves systems of 
linear equations. 


MPY 

(Matrix Multiplication) 


This function returns the matrix product of two arrays. 


SUM 


This function returns the algebraic sum of the elements in the 
specified array. 


TRN (Transpose) 


This function returns the transpose of a matrix. 



The Math Operations section of the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual 
explains each of the matrix functions and provides examples. 

User-Definable Math Functions 

The 4050 Series Graphic System allows you to define a maximum of 26 numeric 
expressions as numeric functions. Defining a numeric expression as a function is 
convenient when the expression must be specified repeatedly throughout a BASIC 
program. The DEF FN (Define Function) statement is explained in detail in the Math 
Operations section of the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



9-37 



Section 10 



Page 

General 10-1 

Routine Maintenance 1 0-1 

Cleaning the Tape Head 10-1 

Cleaning the Dust Filter 10-4 

Running the Verification Software 1 0-5 

Cleaning Exterior Surfaces 1 0-6 

Cycling a Tape Cartridge 1 0-6 

Special Maintenance 1 0-7 

Fuse Replacement 1 0-7 

Hard Copy Intensity Adjustment 10-10 

Tape Cartridge Respooling 10-11 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A - APR 1 979 



Section 10 



MAINTENANCE 



GENERAL 

Beyond the need for occasional cleaning, there is little need for routine maintenance of 
your 4050 Series Graphic Computing System. However, this section provides a 
recommended routine maintenance schedule and maintenance procedures. It also 
provides procedures you may occasionally need for fuse replacement, tape cartridge 
respooling, and hard copy intensity adjustment. 



ROUTINE MAINTENANCE 

Table 1 0-1 provides a routine maintenance schedule and lists the only routine 
maintenance required. 



Table 10-1 



ROUTINE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE 



Item 



Tape head 



Dust filter (4051/4054 fan) 



Verification Program (s) 



Exterior surfaces 



Interval 



Every three months (more frequently if needed) 



As needed 



Monthly 
As needed 



Cleaning the Tape Head 

The surface of the internal magnetic tape unit head (Figure 1 0-1 ) must be kept clean to 
preserve the life of the tape head and to prevent data errors. Oxide deposits, dust, and 
other foreign particles may be deposited on the tape head during tape operation and act 
as abrasives. Frequency of cleaning depends on the amount of tape use and the 
cleanliness of the area in which the Graphic System is used. The following procedure 
describes how to inspect and clean the tape head. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APR 1979 



10-1 



MAINTENANCE 



TAPE HEAD 



l¥&gmffiM$m% in 




1940-218 



Figure 10-1. Tape Head Location. 



■jf -^ .ss •**-•-*■ - 



CAUTION 



Do not use magnetic devices near the tape head. Do not touch the head 
with metal or other hard objects. Doing so may damage the head, resulting 
in damage to tape cartridges and causing loss of data. 



1 . Turn OFF the Graphic System power switch. 

2. Unplug the System power cord from the power source. 

3. Inspect the tape head by shining a light, such as a penlight, at an angle across 
the surface of the head. This reveals accumulations of foreign material or 
damage to the head. 

4. If the head is dirty, continue with this procedure. However, if the head is 
scratched, scored, or excessively worn (Figure 1 0-2), it should be replaced by a 
Tektronix Field Service Specialist. 



10-2 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



MAINTENANCE 






-.. V-. TMSK L gTl i 't fll f i J ' fffllrf n ffln ii ffr i ' i w-' ■ 

&&&£ - ' *'J -"- i --■■-.■- . 

& f • "• *--,.■■ ftiS - : - 



": ' » 



SEODOnSwa I 

W9RHHK! 

2.JE 



; 1S^'^*; 



<fel 




mi 



■s^^-* 



" rr ! ifl$£ 

^*T* : T*"Tn l^ffim '^ T - 



Figure 10-2. Tape Head Damage. 

5. To rub off accumulated matter, use a cotton swab moistened with isopropyl 
alcohol or a special cleaning pad (available through a Tektronix representative.) 
Light accumulations of oxide are usually readily removable. Heavy or long-term 
accumulations may require more cleaning with alcohol and clean swabs. Use 
extreme care when cleaning the head to prevent scratching or damaging the 
head surface. 

6. After removing all accumulated matter, use a clean, dry cotton swab to polish 
the head and remove alcohol residue. 

7. Plug the Graphic System power cord into your power source. 

8. Turn ON the System power switch and run the Software Verification Program to 
check magnetic tape unit operation. (See the System Verification section.) 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



10-3 



MAINTENANCE 



Cleaning the Dust Filter (4051/4054 Fan Only) 



DUST FILTER > 




A. 4051 



DUST FILTER 




B. 4054 



Figure 10-3. Dust Filter. 



10-4 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



MAINTENANCE 



Figure 1 0-3 shows the dust filter on the rear panel. This filter should be checked 
periodically and cleaned as needed to ensure optimum air flow through the System. The 
cleaning procedure follows. 

1 . Turn OFF the Graphic System power switch. 

2. Unplug the System power cord from your power source. 

3. Remove the dust filter by pullmg it through the opening in the filter bracket. 

4. Shake loose as much dust as possible (or vacuum the filter). 

5. Clean the filter in a mild detergent and water solution, rinse, and dry. 



CAUTION 

Do not clean the filter with any other spray or solution. Be sure the filter is 
thoroughly dry before replacing it into the Graphic System. 



6. Replace the filter. 

7. Plug the Graphic System pov/er cord into your power source and turn ON the 
System power switch. 



Running the Verification Software 

Running the System Verification Program(s) checks out the System internal components 
and the System memory. They run in less than 1 minutes and should be run monthly, 
after cleaning the internal magnetic tape unit head, and anytime System performance is in 
doubt. See the System Verification section for detailed instructions. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1 979 



10-5 



MAINTENANCE 



Cleaning Exterior Surfaces 



s CAUTION 



-^--^>-V-? 



Avoid the use of chemical cleaning agents that might damage the plastics, 
paint, or metal in this instrument. Avoid chemicals that contain benzene, 
toluene, xylene, acetone, or similar solvents. 



The keyboard and other exterior surfaces of the Graphic System can be cleaned with a 
mild detergent and water solution. Dampen a soft cloth with the solution and wring it out 
thoroughly before wiping the surface. The display screen can also be cleaned with a glass 
cleaner: spray the cleaner onto a soft cloth, wring the cloth thoroughly, then wipe the 
display. Touch-up paint for extensive scratches and finish damage may be ordered 
through a Tektronix representative. 



Cycling a Tape Cartridge 

It is wise to cycle (wind and rewind) a tape periodically to keep tension evenly adjusted 
and to prevent irregular stacking. This is especially important if only a portion of the tape 
is used repeatedly. Cycling a tape is very easy with the 4052 and 4054 Graphic Systems: 
simply enter CALL "MTPACK" and press RETURN. 

To cycle a tape with the 4051 Graphic System, remove the write-protection and proceed as 
follows. This procedure does not destroy data that is already on the tape. 

FIND n (n is the LAST file on the tape) 

MARK 1 , 400000 (large enough to reach the end of the tape without room for a 
LAST file) 

The 4051 Graphic System will reach the end of the tape, rewind it, and display an error 
message. Restore the LAST file before write-protecting your tape: 

FIND n (n is the NEW file just marked) 

MARK 1,1 (establishes a LAST file) 

Cycling a tape cartridge is also valuable if the tape has been dropped or has undergone a 
significant temperature change. 



10-6 REVA.APR197S 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



MAINTENANCE 



SPECIAL MAINTENANCE 

Fuse Replacement 

If nothing happens when you turn on the power switch, turn off the power switch and 
check the following: (1 ) that your System is connected to the proper power source, (2) 
that the rear-panel fuse (Figure 1 0-4) is the correct value, and (3) that the rear panel fuse 
is not blown. 

If all of the following normal power-up events do not occur when you turn on the power 
switch, note those that do not occur; especially note and record the activity of the front- 
panel indicator lights. Report all power up failure information to your Tektronix Field 
Office. 

The normal power-up events include: 

• The four green indicator lights on the front panel (BUSY, BREAK, I/O, and 
POWER) turn on. 

• The BUSY, BREAK, and I/O lights turn off. 

• The POWER light remains on. 

• If a tape is in the tape unit, the tape rewinds to the beginning. 

• A blinking cursor appears in the upper-left corner of the screen. (It may be 
necessary to press the HOME/PAGE key to view the cursor.) 

Table 10-2 lists the values for correct fuse protection, and Figure 10-4 shows the rear- 
panel fuse location for your System. 

Table 10-2 
FUSE PROTECTION 





4051 


4052 


4054 


1 1 5 Vac 


1.6 A medium blow 


3 A fast blow 


5 A fast blow 


230 Vac 


.8 A medium blow 


3 A fast blow 


3 A slow blow 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV C, NOV 1979 



10-7 



MAINTENANCE 




A. 4051/4052 




B. 4054 



Figure 10-4. Rear-Panel Fuse Location. 



1940-221 



10-8 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



MAINTENANCE 



If a fuse blows repeatedly, do not continue to operate the System; call your Tektronix 
Field Office. 

The following procedure describes how to replace the 4051/4052 rear-panel fuse. 

1 . Turn OFF the Graphic System power switch. 

2. Unplug the System power cord from your power source. 

3. Use a screwdriver to turn the 'use holder 1 /8 turn counterclockwise. 

4. Pull the fuse holder straight o Jt. 

5. Remove the old fuse and place the new fuse in the fuse holder (inserting either 
end). 

6. Replace the fuse holder and gently turn it clockwise until it slips into a groove. 

7. Push the fuse holder straight in (against spring loading). 

8. Use a screwdriver to turn the fuse holder 1 /8 turn clockwise. 

9. Plug the Graphic System power cord into your power source. 

1 0. Turn ON the System power switch. 

The following procedure describes how to replace the 4054 rear-panel fuse. 

1 . Turn OFF the Graphic System power switch. 

2. Unplug the power cord from the 4054. 

3. Slide up the plastic door below the power connector. 

4. Slide the FUSE PULL upward as far as possible. 

5. Remove the fuse. 

6. Slide the FUSE PULL downward as far as possible. 

7. Insert the new fuse (either end up). 

8. Slide the plastic door downward. 

9. Attach the power cord to the 4054. 

1 0. Turn ON the Graphic System power switch. 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S FlEV A, APR 1979 10-9 



MAINTENANCE 



Hard Copy Intensity Adjustment 

Figure 10-5 shows the location of the hard copy intensity control. This adjusts the 
contrast of a hard copy if an optional hard copy unit is part of your Graphic System 
configuration. An optimal setting produces a hard copy without dark edges, without filling 
in of characters, and without storage on the screen from the hard copy scanning bar. 
Adjusting the hard copy intensity control eliminates these effects, but turning it too far 
produces a copy that is incomplete and without detail. 



HARD COPY 
INTENSITY CONTROL 



" tlfcfe«i433 




A. 4051/4052 




POWER 
HARD COPY SWITCH 

INTENSITY CONTROL 



B. 4054 



Figure 10-5. Hard Copy Intensity Control. 



10-10 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



MAINTENANCE 



Tape Cartridge Respooling 

The tape cartridge used in the Graphic System is open-ended; that is, the tape ends are 
not secured to either of the spools. The magnetic tape unit relies on light-sensing of small 
holes at either end of the tape to stop tape motion before the physical end of the tape is 
reached. Under certain conditions, such as a possible circuit failure, a burned-out lamp, 
or an obstruction (such as a soiled cartridge or lamp-detector assembly) in the light path 
(Figure 1 0-6), the tape may fail to stop in time. This results in a tape end coming off one of 
the spools. If you suspect the cause is a circuit failure or a burned out lamp, contact the 
Tektronix Field Office. In any event, you will want to wind the tape back onto the empty 
spool. Use the following procedure. 



LIGHT 
PATH 




mmfifflfflfigms ph 




1940-222 



Figure 10-6. Light Path Location. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



10-11 



MAINTENANCE 



CAUTION 



Do not use a magnetic screwdriver when working on or around a tape 
cartridge. 



1 . Position the tape cartridge with the metal side up and remove the four screws 
that attach the metal base to the plastic cover (Figure 1 0-7A). 

2. Carefully remove the metal base from the plastic case (Figure 1 0-7B). Be 
careful not to lose the plastic write-protect cylinder or the small metal spring 
washer between the cylinder and the metal base. 

3. Turn the base over and place the loose end of the tape across the front of the 
cartridge, threading it in front of the two guideposts (Figure 1 0-7C). 

4. Keeping light tension on the tape, place the loose end of the tape around the 
outside edge of the take-up spool to the point where the spool meets the white 
tension band (Figure 1 0-7D). 

5. Rotate the drive roller (Figure 1 0-7E) clockwise, causing the tape to pass 
around the take-up spool with the loose end passing between the tension band 
and the spool. 

6. Hold the loose end of the tape against the spool and continue rotating the drive 
roller until the loose end passes under the continuing length of tape. Continue 
to rotate the spool by turning the drive roller until three sets of double holes 
have passed both guideposts. Make certain that these first windings are 
centered between the spool edges. 

7. Be sure that the write-protect cylinder is in position, with the spring washer 
between the cylinder and the metal cartridge base. Position the metal base over 
the plastic case (Figure 1 0-7F) and be sure to fit the write-protect cylinder 
through the opening in the metal base. Be careful not to catch or wrinkle the 
tape with the plastic case. Replace the four screws and tighten them evenly. 

8. Check the light path (Figure 10-6) and remove any obstructions (lint, dust, etc.). 
Insert the tape cartridge in the tape unit and cycle the tape as described in the 
Routine Maintenance section. If the problem reoccurs and you have removed 
any obstructions from the light path, contact your Tektronix Field Office before 
loading another tape. 



10-12 rev A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



MAINTENANCE 




WRITE-PROTECT 
CYLINDER- 




' ■■ :■' 



A. Positioning the Tape Cartridge. 



B. Dissassembling the Tape Cartridge. 




TENSION 
BAND 





\ jst^ 



C. Positioning the Tape Within the Cartridge 



D. Beginning the Tape Winding. 



DRIVE 
ROLLER 




WRITE-PROTECT 
CYLINDER 






. *%«* 




E. Winding the Tape. 



F. Assembling the Tape Cartridge. 



Figure 10-7. Tape Cartridge Respooling Procedure. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A. APR 1979 



10-13 



Appendix A 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A . APR 1 9 7 9 



Appendix A 
ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

A firmware failure has occurred. Turn OFF the power switch and wait five 

seconds before turning it ON again. 
Example: 

Loading into the 4051 a program which contains commands available only 
in the 4052/4054 Graphic Systems. 

1 a An arithmetic operation has resulted in an out of range number. 
Example: 
1/1.0E-308 

2 a A divide by zero operation has resulted in an out of range number. 
Example: 
4/0 

3 a An exponentiation operation has resulted in an out of range number. 
Example: 

5T1.0E + 300 

4 a An exponentiation operation involving the base e has resulted in an out of 
range number. 
Example: 

EXP0.0E + 234) 

5 a The parameter of a trigonometric function is too large; that is, the variable N 
in the statement A = SIN(N*2* PI) is greater than 65536. 
Example: 

A=SIN(4.2E + 5) when the trigonometric units are set to RADIANS. 

6 a An attempt has been made to take the square root of a negative number. The 
positive square root is returned by default. 
Example: 
SQR (-4) 



a This error is caused by a math operation which produces a predefined out of range number. This error 
condition can be handled by the BASIC program without terminating program execution. Refer to the ON 
. . . THEN . . . statement in the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual for details. 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S FIEV A. APR 1979 A-1 



ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

7 The line number in the program line is not an integer within the range 1 to 
65535. 

Example: 

REM THIS IS AN INVALID LINE NUMBER 

8 The matrix arrays are not conformable in the current math operation; that is, 
they are not of the same dimension and/or do not have the same number of 
elements. 

Example: 
INIT 

DIM A(2),B(2),C(3) 
A=1 
B = 2 
C=A + B 

9 A previously defined numeric variable can not be dimensioned as an array 
variable without deleting the numeric variable first. 

Example: 
INIT 
B=3 
DIM B(2,2) 

I There is an error in the subscript of a variable due to one of the following: 

1 . A numeric variable can't be subscripted. 

2. A subscript is out of range. 
Example 1 : Example 2: 

INIT INIT 

DIMA(2,2) B = 3 

A(2,3) = 5 PRINT B(4) 

I I An attempt has been made to use an undefined DEF FN function. 

1 2 There is a parameter error in the CALL statement to a ROM pack. 

13 A WBYTE parameter is not within the range —255 through +255. 
Example: 
WBYTE 300 

1 4 A parameter for the APPEND statement is invalid. 

1 5 An attempt has been made to APPEND to a nonexistent line number. 



A-2 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

1 6 There is an invalid parameter in the FUZZ statement. 
Example: FUZZ -10 

1 7 There is an invalid parameter in a RENUMBER operation due to one of the 
following: 

1 . The first or third parameter is not a line number within the range 1 
through 65535. 

2. The increment (second parameter) is not within the range 1 through 
65535 or is so large that out of range line numbers are generated during 
the RENUMBER operation. 

3. Statement replacement or statement interlacing will occur if the RENUM- 
BER operation is attempted. 

This error may occur during an APPEND operation. 

18 Not used. 

1 9 There is an invalid parameler in a GO TO, FOR, or NEXT statement. 
Example: 

500 FOR 1 = 1 to 20 where I has been previously defined as an array 
variable 

20 The logical unit number specified in the statement is not within the range 
through 9. 

100 ON EOF (10) THEN 500 

21 The assignment statement is invalid because of one of the following: 

1 . An attempt has been made to assign an array to a numeric variable. 

2. Two arrays in the statement are not conformable (not of the same 
dimension and/or do not have the same number of elements). 

3. An attempt has been made to assign a character string to a string 
variable and the character string is larger than the dimensioned size of 
the variable. 

22 There is an error in an exponentiation operation because the base is less 
than and the exponent is not an integer less than 256. 

Example: 
-10t257.5 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 A-3 



ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

23 An attempt has been made to take the LOG or LGT of a number which is 
equal to or less than 0. 

Example: 
LOG (-1) 

24 The parameter of the ASN function or the ACS function is not within the 
range —1 to +1. 

Example: 
ASN (2) 

25 The parameter of the CHR function is not within the range through 1 27. 
Example: 

A$=CHR(128) 

26 Not used. 

27 The parameter is out of the domain of the function. 
Example: 

A$=STR(X) 
where X has been previously defined as an array variable. 

28 A REP function parameter is invalid. 

29 The parameter in the VAL function is not a character string containing a valid 
number. 

Example: 

A=VAL("Hi") 

30 The matrix multiplication operation failed because the arrays are not 
conformable. 

31 a The matrix inversion failed because the determinant was 0. This error is 
treated as a SIZE error. 

32 The routine name specified in the CALL statement can not be found. 
Example: 

CALL "FIX IT" where the routine "FIX IT" resides in a ROM pack which is 
not plugged into the System. 

33 Not used. 



a This error is caused by a math operation which produces a predefined out of range number. This error 
condition can be handled by the BASIC program without terminating program execution. Refer to the ON 
- . . THEN . . . statement in the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual for details. 

A-4 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

34 The DATA statement is invalid because of one of the following: 

1 . There isn't a DATA statement in the current BASIC program. 

2. There is not enough data in the DATA statement from the present position 
of the pointer to the end of the statement. 

3. An attempt has been made to RESTORE the data statement pointer to a 
nonexistent DATA statement. 

35 The statements DEF FN, FOR, and ON . . . THEN . . . can not be entered 
without a line number. 

36 There is an undefined variable in the specified line. A numeric variable has 
not been assigned a value or an array element has not been assigned a 
value. 

Example: 
INIT 

DIM A(2,2) 
A(1,2) = 4 
PRINT A 

37 An extended function ROM (Read Only Memory) is required to perform this 
operation. 

38 This output operation can not be executed because the current BASIC 
program is marked SECRET. 

39 This operation can not be executed because the Random Access Memory is 
full. Some program lines or variables must be deleted. 

40 Not used. 

41 A SIZE interrupt condition has occurred and an ON SIZE THEN statement has not 
been executed in the curient BASIC program. 

42 A PAGE FULL interrupt condition has occurred. 

43 A peripheral device on the General Purpose Interface Bus is requesting 
service and an ON SRQ THEN . . . statement has not been executed in the 
current BASIC program. 

44 The EOI signal line on the General Purpose Interface Bus has been activated 
and an ON EOI THEN . . . statement has not been activated in the current 
BASIC program. 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV D, MAR 1980 A-5 



ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

45 A ROM pack is requesting service and the ON UNIT for external interrupt 
number 1 has not been activated in the current BASIC program. 

46 A ROM pack is requesting service and the ON UNIT for external interrupt 
number 2 has not been activated in the current BASIC program. 

47 A ROM pack is requesting service and the ON UNIT for external interrupt 
number 3 has not been activated in the current BASIC program. 

48 The end of the current file has been reached on an I/O device and an ON 
EOF THEN . . . statement has not been executed in the current BASIC 
program. 

49 The statement in the specified line is too long. This error situation occurs if 
an attempt is made to LIST or SAVE a BASIC program which contains a line 
with more than 72 characters. Sometimes a RENUMBER operation can make 
a line longer than 72 characters. 

50 The incoming BASIC program contains a line with more than 72 characters. 

51 The line number specified in this statement cannot be found or is invalid. 
Example: 

GO TO 500 where the line 500 doesn't exist or PRINT USING 1 00: where 
line 1 00 isn't an IMAGE statement. 

52 Either the specified magnetic tape file doesn't exist or an attempt has just 
been made to KILL the LAST (dummy) file. 

53 After 1 attempts, the internal magnetic tape unit has been unable to read a 
portion of the current magnetic tape. The tape head has been positioned after 
the bad portion in the file to allow the rest of the file to be read. 

54 The end of the magnetic tape medium has been detected. Marking a file 
longer than the remaining portion of the tape can cause this error. 

55 An attempt has been made to incorrectly access a magnetic tape file. 
Example: 

Executing an OLD statement when the tape head is positioned in the 
middle of a file. 



A-6 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

56 An attempt has been made to send information to a write-protected tape. 
Remove the tape cartridge, rotate the write-protect cylinder until the black 
arrow points away from SAFE, insert the tape cartridge, and try the operation 
again. 

57 An attempt has been made to read to or write to a nonexistent tape cartridge. 
Insert a tape cartridge inlo the tape slot and try the operation again. 

58 An attempt has been made to read data which is stored in an invalid 
magnetic tape format. The tape format must be compatible with the Graphic 
System. 

59 A program was not found when the OLD statement was executed. 

60 Not used. 

61 An attempt has been made to execute an invalid operation on an open 
magnetic tape file. 

Example: 

Executing a MARK statement with the tape head positioned in the middle 
of an open data file. 

62 There is a disc file system parameter error. 

63 There is an error in a binary data header, most likely caused by a machine 
malfunction. 

64 The character string is too long to output in binary format. The length is 
limited to 81 92 characters. 

65 A parity error has occurred in the 4052 or 4054 RAM memory. Although the error 
is nonfatal (and the message will not be repeated), further operations are 
unreliable until power has been turned off and back on. In the 4051 this error is 
not used. 

66 The primary address in tne specified line is not within the range 1 through 
255. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV B, MAR 1 980 A-7 



ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

67 An attempt has been made to execute an illegal I/O operation on an internal 
peripheral device. 

Example: 

DRAW ©33:50,50 

68 The diagnostic loader failed. 

69 An input error or an output error has occurred on the General Purpose 
Interface Bus. Both the NDAC and NRFD signal lines are inactive high, which 
is an illegal GPIB state. This usually means that there are no peripheral 
devices connected to the GPIB. 

70 There is an incomplete literal string specification in the format string. 
Example: 

100 IMAGE 6D,5("MARK 

71 A format string is not specified for the PRINT USING operation. 

72 A format string is too short or not enough matching data is specified. 
Example: 

100 IMAGE 6D 

1 1 PRINT USING 1 00: 23,24,25 
Line 1 00 should be: 1 00 IMAGE 3(6D) 

73 There is an invalid character in the format string specified in the PRINT 
USING statement. 

74 An n modifier in the format string is out of range or is incorrectly used. When 
used with the E field operator, n modifiers must be positive integers within 
the range 1 through 1 1 ; they must be within the range 1 through 255 when 
used with the A,D,L,P,T,X, " , ( , and / field operators. 

75 The format string specified in the PRINT USING statement is too long (that is, 
there are too many data specifiers for the PRINT statement). 

Example: 

100 IMAGE 3(6D) 

110 PRINT USING 100:A,B 
Line 1 00 should be: 1 00 IMAGE 2(6D) 

76 Parentheses are incorrectly used in the format string which is specified in 
the PRINT USING statement. 

Example: 

100 IMAGE 2(6D 

110 PRINT USING 100:A,B 
Line 1 00 should be: 1 00 IMAGE 2(6D) 

A-8 REV B, MAR 1 980 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

77 There is an invalid modifier to a field operator in the format string which is 
specified in the PRINT USING statement. 

Example: 

100 IMAGE 2(6D),2S 

110 PRINT USING 100:A,B 
Line 1 00 should be: 1 00 IMAGE 2(6D),S 
An n modifier is not allowed. 

78 An S modifier is incorrectly positioned in the format string which is specified 
in the PRINT USING statement. The S modifier must always be positioned at 
the end of the format string. 

Example: 

I 00 IMAGE 4D,S,8A 

Line 1 00 should be: 1 00 IMAGE 4D,8A,S 

79 A comma is incorrectly used in the format string which is specified in the 
PRINT USING statement. 

Example: 

100 IMAGE 6,D,S 
Line 1 00 should be: 1 00 IMAGE 6D,S 

80 A decimal point is incorrectly used in the format string which is specified in 
the PRINT USING statement. 

Example: 

100 IMAGE .3D 

I I PRINT USING 1 00:81 2.345 
Line 100 should be: 100 IMAGE FD.3D 

81 A data type mismatch has occurred in the PRINT USING statement. 
Example: 

100 IMAGE 6D.6A 
1 1 PRINT USING 1 00: "MARY",26 
Line 100 should be : 100 IMAGE 6A,6D 

82 A tabbing error has occurred in the format string which is specified in the 
PRINT USING statement. 

Example: 

100 IMAGE 10A,2T,FD 

1 10 PRINT USING 100: "ENTER DATA",D 
The absolute tab to positon 2 specified by 2T in line 1 00 cannot occur 
because the cursor has already advanced beyond position 2. The tab 
specification must be at least 1 1T in this case. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 A-9 



ERROR MESSAGES 



Message 
Number Error Message 

83 A number specified in the PRINT USING statement contains an exponent 
outside the range ± 1 27. 

Example: 

100 IMAGE FD.3D 

110 PRINT USING 100:8.5E + 200 

84 The IMAGE format string was deleted during the PAGE FULL interrupt 
routine. 

85 A portion of the IMAGE format string was deleted or altered during the PAGE 
FULL interrupt routine. 

86 A portion of the data specified in the PRINT statement was deleted during the 
PAGE FULL interrupt routine. 

87 A data item specified in the PRINT USING statement is too large to fit into the 
print field specified in the format string. 

Example: 

100 IMAGE 5A 

1 1 PRINT USING 1 00: "HORSE FEATHERS" 
In this example, the string constant "HORSE FEATHERS" is too large to fit 
into the 5 character field which is specified in line 1 00. 

88 Not used. 

89 A ROM pack has issued an error message. 

90 Not used. 

91 Not used. 

92 Not used. 

93 Not used. 

94 Not used. 

95 An internal conversion error has occurred because a parameter in the 
specified statement is negative. 

96 An internal conversion error has occurred because a parameter in the 
specified statement is greater than 65535. 



A-10 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Appendix B 



Page 

Processor b-1 

Keyboard B-1 

Magnetic Tape Cartridge B-2 

Display Characteristics B-2 

General B-2 

Alphanumeric Display Format B-3 

Graphic Display Format B-5 

General Purpose Interface Bus B-6 

Physical Characteristics B-6 

Power Requirements B-7 

Environmental Specifications B-7 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A. APR 1979 



Appendix B 



SPECIFICATIONS 



PROCESSOR 

Programming Language 



Workspace Size 
4051 



4052/4054 



BASIC: includes all the standard BASIC language 
elements plus graphics and other extensions. 



8K bytes of RAM (Random Access Memory) stan- 
dard; expandable to 32K bytes in 8K increments. 

32K bytes of RAM standard; 56K bytes optional. 



KEYBOARD 

Alphanumeric Keys 
User Definable Keys 
Editing Keys 

Numeric Keypad 



Other Keys 
AUTO NUMBER 

STEP 

AUTO LOAD 



Complete upper and lower case alphanumerics with 
auto-repeating keys. Full ASCII 1 28 characters. 

1 user definable keys with SHIFT control for up to 
20 separate function calls. 

Five editing keys with SHIFT control for 1 different 
editing functions to edit a BASIC statement before 
processing. 

1 numeric keys, five math operator keys, decimal 
point, parentheses, and ENTER EXP (for scientific 
notation). 



Generates program line numbers automatically. 

Executes program steps one at a time. 

Automatically loads and runs the first ASCII pro- 
gram on a magnetic tape cartridge. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



B-1 



SPECIFICATIONS 



REWIND 



MAKE COPY 



Thumbwheels (4054 only) 



Rewinds the magnetic tape cartridge. 

Activates an optional hard copy unit. 

Position the full screen crosshair cursor for graphic 
input. 



MAGNETIC TAPE CARTRIDGE 



Characteristics 



Type 

Storage Capacity 

Record Length 
Operating Life 



A file-structured device for storing programs and 
data. BASIC statements executed under program 
control or entered from the keyboard are used to 
transfer information to and from the magnetic tape 
cartridge. 

3M DC300A 

300K bytes maximum (dependent on number of 
files) 

256 characters (1 28 characters selectable) 

5000 passes minimum 



DISPLAY CHARACTERISTICS 



General 



Quality Display Area 
4051/4052 



4054 



Erase Time 
4051/4052 

4054 



An 11 " DVST provides a 7.48 in x 5.51 in (1 9.00 cm 
x 1 4.00 cm) rectangle with its center within 0.25 
inches of crt faceplate center. 

A 1 9" DVST provides a 1 4.00 in x 1 0.50 in (35.56 
cm x 26.67 cm) rectangle, approximately centerea 
on the crt. 

Less than 1 s. 

Less than 1.5 s. 



B-2 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



SPECIFICATIONS 



Hold Mode (Reduced display 
intensity) 



Usable Storage Time 



If Ihere is no display activity (except the cursor) for 
approximately 1 1 seconds, the System goes into 
Hold Mode (reduced display intensity). View Mode 
(normal intensity) is reset by any display storage 
activity or by pressing the SHIFT key. 

Up to 1 5 minutes in View Mode or up to 1 hour in 
Hold Mode without permanent damage to storage 
target. If a residual image remains after the screen 
is erased, it can usually be removed by erasing the 
screen several times. 



Automatic Paging 
4051/4052 



4054 



Hard Copy Time 



If there is no System activity for approximately 30 
minutes, the screen is paged (erased) automatically. 

If there is no display activity (except the cursor) for 
approximately 30 minutes, the screen is paged 
(erased) automatically. 

Refer to the documentation for your hard copy unit 
(optional peripheral) for specific times. 



Alphanumeric Display Format 

Characters Displayed 96 ASCII characters (upper and lower case) 



Character Type 
4051/4052 



5x8 dot matrix 



4054 



Stroke character 



Character Size 
4051/4052 

4054 



5x8 dot matrix approximately 87 x 1 06 mils 



Four character sizes; see Table B-1. 



Characters Per Line 
4051/4052 



72 (74 with Option 1, Data Communications Interface) 



4054 



See Table B-1. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV B.NOV 1979 



B-3 



SPECIFICATIONS 



Characters Per Display 
4051/4052 



2520 (2590 with Option 1, Data Communications 
Interface) 



4054 



See Table B-1. 



Lines Per Page 
4051/4052 

4054 



35 

See Table B-1. 



Table B-1 



4054 ALPHANUMERIC CHARACTER DISPLAY 



Character 
Size 


Characters 
Per Line 


Lines 
Per Page 


Characters 
Per Page 


4 (default) 


72 (74 with Option 1) 


35 


2520 (2590 with Option 1) 


3 


79 (81 with Option 1) 
119 (121 with Option 1 


38 


3002 (3078 with Option 1) 


2 


58 


6902 (701 8 with Option 1) 


1 


132 (133 with Option 1) 


64 


8448 (8512 with Option 1) 



Cursor Type 
4051/4052 

4054 

Linefeed 



Carriage Return/Linefeed 



Pulsating 5 x 8 dot matrix 

Pulsating stroke character rectangle 

Occurs automatically upon activation of Carriage 
Return. 

Automatic when attempting to print a character past 
the right margin position under program control. 



B-4 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Graphic Display Format 



SPECIFICATIONS 



Drawing Area 

Addressable Points 
Graphic Display Unit (GDU) 



Within quality display area 



1 30 horizontal graphic display units are 
addressable and viewable; 130 vertical graphic 
display units are addressable, with 1 00 points 
viewable. 



User Data Unit 



Graphic Input 

4051 (with optional Joystick) 

4052 (with optional Joystick) 
4054 



Address Resolution 
4051/4052 



4054 



Vector Type 
4051/4052 



The WINDOW (WIN) statement permits units of 
addressability (weeks, years, dollars, etc.) other 
than GDUs. The System automatically translates 
predefined user data units into their GDU equivalent 
for beam positioning. 



Eilinking arrow 

Eilinking arrow 

Full screen crosshair cursor with keyboard 

thumbwheel control standard; Joystick optional 



Maximal resolution obtainable by addressing frac- 
tional GDUs or using the WINDOW statement to 
establish the viewable portion of a 1 024 x 1 024 grid 
(WINDOW 0,1 024,0,788). 

Maximal resolution obtainable by addresing frac- 
t onal GDUs or by using the WINDOW statement to 
establish the viewable portion of a 4096 x 4096 grid 
(WINDOW 0,4096,0,31 52). 



Solid 



4054 



Solid and dash pattern 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HEV A, APR 1979 



B-5 



SPECIFICATIONS 



GENERAL PURPOSE INTERFACE BUS 

Purpose 



Specifications 



Control 



Allows peripheral devices to be attached to the 
System. 

Conforms to IEEE Standard 488-1 975. Transfer 
mode is byte-serial, bit-parallel. For complete speci- 
fications refer to IEEE Standard 488-1 975. 

External devices are serviced via interrupt 
procedures available in the BASIC operating sys- 
tem. Enable/disable, polling, and data transfer com- 
mands are available under program control. Refer to 
the 4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual. 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

Table B-2 shows the physical characteristics of the 4050 Series Graphic Computing 
Systems. 



Characteristic 



Width 



Depth 



Height 



Weight 



Shipping Weight (with 
accessories) 



Table B-2 



PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 



4051 



18.30 in (46.48 cm) 



32.05 in (81.41 cm) 



14.25 in (36.20 cm) 



67 lb (30.4.5 kg) 



90 lb (40.91 kg) 



4052 



18.30 in (46.48 cm) 



32.05 in (81.41 cm) 



14.25 in (36.20 cm) 



70 lb (31.82 kg) 



100 1b (45.45 kg) 



4054 



26.30 in (66.80 cm) 



32.75 in (83.18 cm) 



20.50 in (52.07 cm) 



145 lb (65.91 kg) 



215 1b (97.73 kg) 



B-6 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



SPECIFICATIONS 



POWER REQUIREMENTS 

The 4050 Series Graphic Computing System is intended to be operated from a single- 
phase, alternating current power source that has one of its current-carrying conductors 
(neutral) at ground (earth) potential. Table B-3 shows additional power supply require- 
ments. 

Table B-3 
POWER REQUIREMENTS 



Requirements 


4051 


4052 


4054 


Line Voltage Ranges 


90Vac-132Vac 
180 Vac- 250 Vac 

48-66 Hz 






Nominal 1 15 Vac 
Nominal 230 Vac 


90 Vac- 132 Vac 
198Vac-250Vac 


90 Vac- 132 Vac 
198 Vac -250 Vac 


Line Frequency Range 


48-66 Hz 


48-66 Hz 


Maximum Voltage Input 








Nominal 1 1 5 Vac Range 
Nominal 230 Vac Range 


132 Vac 
250 Vac 


1 32 Vac 
250 Vac 


1 32 Vac 
250 Vac 


Power Consumption 


200 watts 
(approximate) 


230 watts 
(approximate) 


360 watts 
(approximate) 


Fuse Protection 






Nominal 1 1 5 Vac Range 
Nominal 230 Vac Range 


1.6 A medium blow 
.8 A medium blow 


3 A fast blow 
3 A fast blow 


5 A fast blow 
3 A slow blow 



ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS 

Your 4050 Series Graphic Computing System is intended for operation in a stationary, 
indoor environment. It is not intended for use outdoors, in vehicles, or on a moving 
platform. Tables B-4 and B-5 present e nvironmental specifications for each 4050 Series 
Graphic System. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



=!EV A. APR 1979 



B-7 



SPECIFICATIONS 



Table B-4 



ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS 
(Note exceptions in Table B-5) 



Characteristic 


4051 


4052 


4054 


Temperature Range 
Operating 


+ 10° C ( + 50° F) to 
+ 40°C( + 104°F) 


+ 10°C (+50°F)to 
+ 40°C( + 104°F) 


+ 10°C (+50°F)to 
+ 40° C ( + 104° F) 


Nonoperating 


-40° C (-40° F) to 
+ 65°C(+149°F) 


-40° C (-40° F) to 
+ 65° C ( + 149° F) 


-40° C (-40° F) to 
+ 65° C ( + 149° F) 


Humidity Range 
Operating 


0%-80% 
noncondensing 


0%-80% 
noncondensing 


0%-80% 
noncondensing 


Nonoperating 


0%-95% 
noncondensing 


0%-95% 
noncondensing 


0%-95% 
noncondensing 


Altitude 
Operating 


to 1 5,000 ft (4,572 m) 


to 15,000 ft (4,572 m) 


to 15,000 ft (4,572 m) 


Nonoperating 


to 50,000 ft (1 5,240 m) 


to 50,000 ft (15,240 m) 


to 50,000 ft (1 5,240 m) 


Shock (Nonoperating) 


x k sine, 1 1 ms 
duration, 30 g's 


V2 sine, 1 1 ms 
duration, 30 g's 


V2 sine, 1 1 ms 
duration, 30 g's 


Vibration 
(Nonoperating) 


0.015" (0.038 cm) 
DA-1 0-40-10 Hz 


0.015" (0.038 cm) 
DA-10-40-10Hz 


0.010" (0.025 cm) 
DA- 10-40- 10 Hz 


Heat Dissipation 


682 BTU/hr 
(approximate) 


780 BTU/hr 
(approximate) 


1 230 BTU/hr 
(approximate) 



B-8 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



SPECIFICATIONS 



Table B-5 



TAPE CARTRIDGE ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS 



Characteristic 


Specification 


Temperature Range 
Operating 


+ 5°C ( + 41 °F) to +45° C ( + 113° F) 


Nonoperating 


-40° C (-40°F)to +45°C( + 113°F) 


Humidity Range 


20%— 80% noncondensing 


Conditioning 


Acclimate tape to operating temperature for several 
hours if it has been stored in a colder or warmer 
environment. See the PLOT 50 System Software 
General Information section, Tape Cartridge Care, 
for information about tape tension adjustment. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



RI:V B. NOV 1979 



B-9 



Appendix C 



Page 

General C-1 

Unpacking C-1 

Power Source and Operating Voltage C-3 

Connectors and Optional Peripherals C-6 

First-Time Operation C-8 

Repackaging C-8 

Line Voltage Selection and Fuse Replacement C-1 

General C-1 

The 4051 Graphic System C-1 

The 4052 Graphic System C-1 3 

The 4054 Graphic System C-1 7 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S RiiV A, APR 1 979 



Appendix C 



INSTALLATION 



GENERAL 

Installation consists ol unpacking the Graphic System from the shipping carton, ensuring 
line voltage and fuse compatibility with the site power source, and connecting the power 
cord between the Graphic System and the power source. 



UNPACKING 

You may wish to save the carton and packing materials in which the Graphic System was 
shipped in case the System needs to be shipped to a Tektronix Service Center for service 
or repair. Repackaging instructions are included later in this appendix. 



Table C-1 

STANDARD 4050 SERIES 
GRAPHIC SYSTEM DIMENSIONS 



Characteristic 



Width 



Depth 



Height 



Weight 



Shipping Weight 
(with accessories) 



4051 



18.30 in (46.48 cm) 



32.05 in (81.41 cm) 



14.25 in (36.20 cm) 



67 lb (30.45 kg) 



90 lb (40.91 kg) 



4052 



18.30 in (46.48 cm) 



32.05 in (81.41 cm) 



14.25 in (36.20 cm) 



70 lb (31.82 kg) 



100 1b (45.45 kg) 



4054 



26.30 in (66.80 cm) 



32.75 in (83.18 cm) 



20.50 in (52.07 cm) 



145 1b (65.91 kg) 
21 5 lb (97.73 kg) 



Table C-1 shows the dimensions for each standard 4050 Series Graphic Computing 
System. After removing the System from the shipping carton, place it on a table or other 
work surface that safely supports it. Note the air vents and fans shown in Figure C-1. 
Make certain they are always free from obstructions (walls, papers, clothing, etc.) to 
permit airflow through the unit. 



4050 SERIES OPERATORS 



REV A. APR 1979 



C-1 



INSTALLATION 




i^^ •J25*3 



' gr^B ' 



FAN 



A. 4051/4052 Fan 




B. 4052 Air Vents 




C. 4054 Fan and Air Vents 



Figure C-1 . Fan and Air Vent Locations. 



C-2 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 



CAUTION 



Allow at least four inches of clearance behind a 4054 Graphic System and 
approximately three inches on each side. 



Take inventory of the standard accessories shipped with your unit. Compare them with 
the standard accessories listed in the Accessories and Peripherals Appendix. If any 
differences exist or if there is damage 1o either the System or the accessories, contact 
your Tektronix representative. If you have received optional accessories with your System 
(a plotter, a hard copy unit, a Joystick, etc.), refer to their accompanying manuals for 
installation information. 



POWER SOURCE AND OPERATING VOLTAGE 



CAUTION 



The Graphic System is intended to be operated from a single-phase power 
source that has one of its current-carrying conductors (neutral) at ground 
(earth) potential. Operating from other power sources where both current- 
carrying conductors are live with respect to ground (such as phase-to- 
phase on a multiphase system, or across the legs of a 110-220 volt single- 
phase, three-wire system) is not recommended, since only the line 
conductor has over-current (fuse) protection within the unit. 



On the rear panel of the Graphic System is a three-wire polarized power connector with 
one lead connected directly to the instrument frame to provide electric shock protection. 
Connect this to only a three-wire outlet which has a safety ground. Contact a qualified 
service technician to verify that the outlet is properly grounded. Figure C-2 shows power 
cord configuration and color coding. 



CAUTION 

The Graphic System must have the correct power cord and line voltage 
setting to avoid damage to the System power supply. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV B, APR 1979 C-3 



INSTALLATION 




100-120 VAC 
(161-0033-00) 



1940-225 




200-240 VAC 
(161-0099-00) 



Conductor 



Color 



Alternate Color 



Ungrounded (Line) 



Brown 



Black 



Grounded (Neutral) 



Blue 



White 



Grounding (Earthing) 



Green-Yellow 



Green-Yellow 



Figure C-2. Power Cord Conductor Identification. 

The Graphic System is designed to operate from a 1 10-220 volt nominal line voltage that 
has a frequency between 48-66 Hz. Before connecting the power cord, verify that the 
voltage of your power source is the same as the line voltage of your Graphic System. 

Figure C-3 shows the yellow voltage indicator below the power connector on the rear 
panel of the 4051 /4052. This indicates the voltage to which the unit was set before 
leaving the factory. If the voltage of your power source differs from the voltage indicator 
reading, refer to the Line Voltage Selection and Fuse Replacement material at the end of 
this appendix. 



CAUTION 



I 



Changing the yellow voltage indicator does not change the line voltage. 



C-4 



REV B.APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 



■ ,!■■■■:■:■■■ 







4051 



4052 



Figure C-3. 4051 /4052 Line Voltage Indicator. 



1940-226 



4050 SERIES OPERATORS 



RIEV A. APR 1979 



C-5 



INSTALLATION 



Figure C-4 shows the line voltage indicator below the power connector on the rear panel 
of the 4054. If the voltage of your power source differs from the number visible on the 
circuit card behind the plastic door, refer to the Line Voltage Selection and Fuse 
Replacement material at the end of this appendix. 




POWER 
CONNECTOR 



PLASTIC 
DOOR 



1940-227 



Figure C-4. 4054 Line Voltage Indicator. 

CONNECTORS AND OPTIONAL PERIPHERALS 

The rear panel provides three connectors for System peripherals. One connector is 
reserved for the Joystick, and another is reserved for an optional hard copy unit. The third 
is the IEEE Standard #488-1975 compatible connector, the GPIB (General Purpose 
Interface Bus). This connector is for peripherals such as a plotter, an additional magnetic 
tape unit, or a disc unit. Figure C-5 shows these connectors and the backpack. 



C-6 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 



JOYSTICK 
CONNI-CTOR N 



HARD COPY UNIT 
CONNECTOR 




BACKPACK 



GENERAL PURPOSE 

INTERFACE CONNECTOR 

(IEEE =#488-1975) 



A. 4051/4052 



JOYSTICK 
CONNECTOR 



HARD COPY UNIT 
CONNECTOR 



BACKPACK 




GENERAL PURPOSE 

INTERFACE CONNECTOR 

<IEEE=W 488-1 975) 



1940-228 



B. 4054 



Figure C-5. Rear-Panel Connectors and Backpack. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FIEV B.NOV 1979 



C-7 



INSTALLATION 



The backpack is used for optional ROM Packs, an optional printer interface, and the 
Option 1 Data Communications Interface. Connectors for a printer and/or a modem are 
provided as part of an option, if needed. For detailed peripheral installation information, 
refer to the appropriate peripheral manual. 



FIRST-TIME OPERATION 

After ensuring line voltage and fuse compatibility with your power source, connect the 
power cord to your System and then to your power source. 



NOTE 

If several devices are connected to the GPIB, one more than 50% of the 
devices must be turned on (regardless of whether they are used) before 
you turn on the Graphic System. Otherwise, the bus may be loaded down, 
causing an error message or causing the System not to respond properly. 

Power up the Graphic System by pressing the right side of the power switch located 
beneath the right-front corner of the unit. If nothing happens when you turn on the power 
switch, turn off the power switch and check the following: (1 ) that your System is 
connected to the proper power source, (2) that the rear-panel fuse (Figure 1 0-4) is the 
correct value, and (3) that the rear panel fuse is not blown. 

If all of the following normal power-up events do not occur when you turn on the power 
switch, note those that do not occur; especially note and record the activity of the front- 
panel indicator lights. Report all power-up failure information to your Tektronix Field 
Office. 

The normal power-up events include: 

• The four green indicator lights on the front panel (BUSY, BREAK, I/O, and 
POWER) turn on. 

• The BUSY, BREAK, and I/O lights turn off. 

• The POWER light remains on. 

• If a tape is in the tape unit, the tape rewinds to the beginning. 

• A blinking cursor appears in the upper-left corner of the screen. (It may be 
necessary to press the HOME/PAGE key to view the cursor.) 



C-8 rev c, NOV 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 



First-time operation consists of running the System Verification Program(s) as described 
in System Verification (Section 8). After that, you may select your own course. You can 
start with the introductory material in Sections 1 and 2, run the Graphic System Tutorial 
(Section 3), draw graphs with the Plot Programs (Sections 4-7), read Keys, Buttons, and 
Switches (Section 9), or get right into programming the System to fit your application needs. 

REPACKAGING 

If the Graphic System is to be shipped to a Tektronix Service Center for service or repair, 
attach a tag showing: owner (with address), name of an individual at your firm who can be 
contacted, complete serial number, and a description of the service required. If the 
original packaging is unfit for use or not available, repackage the System as follows: 

1 . Obtain a carton of corrugated cardboard having inside dimensions of at least 
six inches more than the instrument dimensions in each direction; this allows 
for cushioning. Refer to Table C-2 for carton strength requirements. 

2. Surround the System with polyethylene sheeting to protect the finish. 

3. Cushion the System on all sides by tightly packing dunnage or urethane foam 
between the carton and the sides of the system. 

4. Seal with shipping tape or use an industrial stapler. 



Table C-2 



SHIPPING CARTON TEST STRENGTH 



Gross Weight 


Carton Test Strength 


Pounds 


Kilograms 


Pounds 


Kilograms 


0-10 


0-3.73 


200 


74.6 


10-30 


3.73-11.19 


275 


102.5 


30-1 20 


11.19-44.76 


375 


140.0 


120-140 


44.76-52.22 


500 


186.5 


140-160 


52.22-59.63 


600 


223.8 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REVB.JUN 1979 



C9 



INSTALLATION 



C-10 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 



LINE VOLTAGE SELECTION AND FUSE REPLACEMENT 
General 



WARNING 



Dangerous voltages exist inside the Graphic System. Always turn the 
System OFF and disconnect it from the power source before removing the 
top cover. Only qualified technical personnel should attempt to change the 
line voltage of a 4051 or a 4052. Unfamiliarity with electronic equipment 
and safety procedures can resjlt in personal injury. 

The 4051 Graphic System 

Line voltage for the 4051 is selected by positioning wire jumpers on the power supply 
transformer. The transformer is located inside the unit in the right-rear corner. 

If the voltage of your power source differs from the voltage setting of your 4051, use the 
following procedure to select proper line voltage and to ensure fuse compatibility. 

1 . Be certain the System power cord is disconnected from your power source. 

2. Turn the unit on its side (being sure it is adequately supported). 

3. Loosen the two 5/1 6" hex bolts shown in Figure C-6. 

HEX BOLTS , 



inwsifc-fleiBw*, fa". ; Us-.iA- 1 ' • i-'.s:.l:A. ■_'£.. i 












■' 
- M i »iiit.»M imi 



ii 

II 



1 940-229 



Figure C-6. Hex Bolts on Bottom of 4051 . 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



C-11 



INSTALLATION 



4. Position the unit upright and remove the screws from the upper corners of the 
rear panel. 

5. Carefully remove the cover by lifting it straight up without hitting circuit 
components. 

6. Remove the metal safety shield that is over the transformer by removing the 
three screws shown in Figure C-7. 



SCREWS 



? J U *-„ 




940-230 



Figure C-7. 4051 Power Supply Transformer Safety Shield. 

7. Figure C-8 shows the numbering of the six terminals to which two jumpers are 
attached. Positioning these jumpers as shown on the transformer safety shield 
selects the line voltage. 



C 12 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 




I REAR PANEL 



JUMPERS 



Figure C -8. 4051 Power Supply Transformer Terminal and Jumpers. 



I 



CAUTION 



If improper line voltage is selected, the power supply may be damaged. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



C-13 



INSTALLATION 



8. Loosen the yellow voltage indicator screw on the rear panel of the 4051 . Turn 
the indicator to show the proper voltage in the window. Tighten the screw. 



NOTE 

The voltage indicator only provides information; it does not 
select line voltage. 

9. Replace the transformer safety shield. 

1 0. Remove the fuse as explained in the Maintenance Section and compare it with 
the fuse requirements (on the rear panel); change the fuse if necessary. Place 
the fuse in the fuse holder (inserting either end), and replace the fuse holder. 

1 1 . Carefully replace the System cover and the two rear-panel screws. 

12. Tighten the two hex bolts. 

The 4052 Graphic System 

Line voltage for the 4052 is selected by setting three switches. These are under the cover 
of the power supply transformer in the right-rear corner of the unit. 

If the voltage of your power source differs from the voltage setting of your 4052, use the 
following procedure to select proper line voltage. 

1 . Be sure the System power cord is disconnected from your power source. 

2. Turn the unit on its side (being sure it is adequately supported). 

3. Loosen the two 5/1 6" hex bolts shown in Figure C-9. 



C-14 REV A. APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 



HEX BOLTS 




1 940-229 



Figure C-9. Hex Bolts on Bottom of 4052. 

4. Position the unit upright and remove the screws from the upper corners of the 
rear panel. 

5. Carefully remove the cover by lifting it straight up without hitting circuit 
components. 

6. Remove the power supply cover by removing the two screws shown in Figure 
C-10. 



4060 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



C-15 



INSTALLATION 



SCREWS 




Figure C-10. 4052 Power Supply Shield. 

7. Locate the three line voltage selection switches (Figure C-1 1 ) and compare 

their positions with Figure C-1 2. Set the combination that is appropriate for your 
power source. 



C-16 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 



SELECTION 
SWITCHES 




Figure C-1 1 . 4052 Line Voltage Selection Switches. 



90-100 VOLTS 



LOW 


115 


115 







LINE VOLTAGE SWITCHES 

108-132 VOLTS 198-242 VOLTS 



• 










HIGH 


t^am 


^mt» 


'••. 










«MM 


115 


11E 


• 








• - 









R •> — 





216-250 VOLTS 



HIGH 


230 


230 



I 




Figure C-1 2. 4052 Line Voltage Switch Settings. 



CAUTION 



If improper line voltage is selected, the power supply may be damaged. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV B.NOV 1979 



C-17 



INSTALLATION 



8. Loosen the yellow voltage indicator screw on the rear panel of the 4052. Turn 
the indicator to show the proper voltage in the window. Tighten the screw. 



NOTE 

The voltage indicator only provides information; it does not select line 
voltage. 



9. Replace the power supply cover. 

1 0. Carefully replace the System cover and the two rear-panel screws. 

11. Tighten the two hex bolts. 

The 4052 fuse does not need to be changed. 



The 4054 Graphic System 

If the voltage of your power source differs from the voltage setting of your 4054, use the 
following procedure to select proper line voltage and to ensure fuse compatibility. 

1 . Be sure the System power cord is disconnected from your power source. 

2. Locate the plastic door below the power connector on the rear panel of the 
4054. This covers the circuit card and the line voltage fuse. See Figure C-1 3. 



C-18 REVA, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 




PLASTIC 
DOOR 



CIRCUIT 
CARD 



1940-235 



Figure C-1 3. 4054 Line Voltage Fuse and Circuit Card. 

3. Slide the door upward. 

4. Slide the FUSE PULL upward as far as possible and remove the fuse. 

5. Use a pair of serrated needle-nose pliers or a similar tool to remove the circuit 
card. Grasp the card near the center of the nearest edge (where there is a hole) 
and pull firmly (Figure C-1 4). Note the vertical position of the card. 



NOTE 



Line voltage is selected by tne position of the circuit card. One side of the 
card designates 120 Vac or 240 Vac; the other designates 100 Vac or 220 
Vac. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APF! 1979 



C-19 



INSTALLATION 




1940-236 



Figure C-1 4. Removing the Circuit Card. 



Reinsert the circuit card with the proper voltage designation in the upper 
position on the side of the card nearest the FUSE PULL (Figure C-1 5). 



C-20 



REV A. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INSTALLATION 



I- 



II' 



i 



111 

S. |S mm 
1 ii! il!t il§l 


jjH| ]■» JER Jjjjj jj|j 

IB ill Hi III ll 

'Unit PSSr -Jims!' «Hlf W^H 

ill IBi ill fBI H 


fif 

1111 


if§§ 


Ml 


:|^|f -^ 


"if 

Jsilt 
lljj 


fill 
11 


1 ^ -fF": 


JS11B llBlli Hilif Jilllill llllil 




■ 




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llilll 


~ r 'p 


i -M ■?■"' "te Vi 4 '2* -"as' ■■■•• 

e 5*7? ■«**•» ;*!?!" 4W •*<p i **% ■c$-^ i 


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.V'«J; % 


[ ?S.n! -£*■* ■■&** ***$|Sfc #"^K -:wf *i'-«#" 


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r*«jt^ 




^y* .wn^r i^^w.. .5*3* js-jt; 


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lis 



fc#S* 

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mm 



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mm 



mm 



K*M 



H 



fcwK! 



5, *Y»KisW*£S '3s 



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Hfe 



ssti 



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Figure C-1 5. Inserting the Circuit Card for 1 20 Vac Selection. 



1940-237 



CAUTION 



If improper line voltage is selected, the power supply may be damaged. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



C-21 



INSTALLATION 



7. Slide the FUSE PULL downward. If the circuit card has been inserted properly, 
the only number now visible on the card is the number corresponding to the 
voltage of your power source. 

8. Check fuse size requirements (on the rear panel). Change the fuse if necessary. 

9. Insert the fuse (either end up). 

10. Slide the plastic door downward. 



C-22 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Appendix D 



Standard Accessories 



4051 Graphic Computing System 

4052 Graphic Computing System 
4054 Graphic Computing System 



„„,„ REV A, APR 1979 

4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



Page 

D-1 
D-1 



Optional Accessories 

Systems D2 



D-2 

D-2 

D-2 

Graphic Input D3 



D-3 



Graphic or Alphanumeric Output 

Storage Devices D3 

Interfaces „„ 

ROM Packs and ROM Pack Accessories " 

Software D4 

Graphic Computing System Manuals 

Peripheral Manuals 



Appendix D 



ACCESSORIES AND PERIPHERALS 



This appendix provides a list of standard and optional accessories for your 4050 Series 
Graphic Computing System. If you did not receive all of the standard accessories with 
your System, contact your Tektronix representative. 

This appendix also includes a summary of Tektronix products that are compatible with 
4050 Series Graphic Computing Systems. Your local Tektronix Field Office has up-to- 
date information on new products. 



STANDARD ACCESSORIES 



PLOT 50 System Software Tape 

PLOT 50 System Software Backup Tape 

4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 

4050 Series Graphic System Reference Manual 

4050 Series BASIC Reference Guide 

PLOT 50 Introduction to Programming in BASIC Manual 

PLOT 50 Introduction to Graphic Programming in BASIC Manual 

Binder (2 inch) 

Binder (2 inch) with Tape Pockets and Divider 

Package of 1 Blank Overlays 

Power Cord 



Part Number 

020-01 60-02 
020-0161-02 
070-1 940-XX a 
070-2056-XX 
070-21 42-XX 
070-2058-XX 
070-2059-XX 
016-0367-00 

334-2630-02 
161-0066-00 



OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES 



Visor for CRT 

Pedestal Kit 

Protective Dust Cover 

GPIB Interconnect Cable (two meters long) 

GPIB Interconnect Cable (four meters long) 

Package of 5 Blank Tape Cartridges 

(Also see list of manuals) 



Part Number 

016-0346-00 
016-0364-00 
016-0376-00 
012-0630-03 
012-0630-04 
1 1 9-0680-01 



a XX represents two-digit code of most recent revision. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



FIEV B.APR 1979 



D-1 



ACCESSORIES AND PERIPHERALS 



SYSTEMS 

4051 Graphic Computing System 

4051 Option 1 Data Communications Interface 
4051 Option 10 Printer Interface 
4051 Option 20 16K Bytes Total Memory 
4051 Option 21 24K Bytes Total Memory 
4051 Option 22 32K Bytes Total Memory 

4051 Option 48 220V, 50 Hz 

4052 Graphic Computing System 

4052 Option 1 Data Communications Interface 

4052 Option 2 Four Slot ROM Backpack 

4052 Option 3 Data Communications Interface, Four Slot 

4052 Option 10 Printer Interface 

4052 Option 24 56K Bytes Total Memory 

4052 Option 48 220V, 50 Hz 

4054 Graphic Computing System 

4054 Option 1 Data Communications Interface 

4054 Option 2 Four Slot ROM Backpack 

4054 Option 3 Data Communications Interface, Four Slot 

4054 Option 1 Printer Interface 

4054 Option 24 56K Bytes Total Memory 

4054 Optoin 48 220V, 50 Hz 

GRAPHIC INPUT 

4952 Option 2 Joystick 
4956 Graphics Tablet (20" X 20" Surface) 
Option 33 36" X 36" Surface 



D-2 REV B. APR 1 979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



ACCESSORIES AND PERIPHERALS 



GRAPHIC OR ALPHANUMERIC OUTPUT 

4631 Hard Copy Unit 

4662 or 4663 Interactive Digital Plotter 

4641 or 4642 Character Printer 



STORAGE DEVICES 

4924 Digital Cartridge Tape Drive 
4907 File Management System 

Option 30 Total Two Disc Drives 

Option 31 Total Three Disc Drives 

Option 40 File Manager (for the 4052 and 4054) 



INTERFACES 

4051 Option 1 Data Communications Interface 

4052 Option 1 Data Communications Interface 
4054 Option 1 Data Communications Interface 

4052 Option 3 Data Communications Interface, Four Slot 
4054 Option 3 Data Communications Interface, Four Slot 
4051 C01 Synchronous Communications Interface (for the 4051 only) 

4051 Option 10 Printer Interface 

4052 Option 1 Printer Interface (for the 4052 and 4054) 
4931 Modem (Modulator/Demodulator) 



ROM PACKS AND ROM PACK ACCESSORIES 

4051 R01 Matrix Functions ROM Pack 

4051 R05 Binary Program Loader ROM Pack 

4051 R06 Editor ROM Pack 

4052R06 Editor ROM Pack (for the 4052 and 4054) 

4051 R07 Signal Processing ROM Pack #1 

4052R07 Signal Processing ROM Pack #1 (for the 4052 and 4054) 
4051 E01 ROM Expander (for the 4051 only) 

4052 Option 2 Four Slot ROM Backpack 
4054 Option 2 Four Slot ROM Backpack 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S HEV B.APR 1979 D-3 



ACCESSORIES AND PERIPHERALS 



SOFTWARE 



4050A01 PLOT 50 
4050A02 PLOT 50 
4050A03 PLOT 50 
4050A04 PLOT 50 
4050A05 PLOT 50 
4050A06 PLOT 50 
4050A07 PLOT 50 
4050A08 PLOT 50 
4050A09 PLOT 50 
4050A10PLOT50 
4050A1 1 PLOT 50 
4050A12PLOT50 
4050A13 PLOT 50 
4050A14PLOT50 
4050A15 PLOT 50 
4050B01 Modeling 
Option 5 Flexible 



Statistics, Vol. 1 

Statistics, Vol. 2 

Statistics, Vol. 3 

Mathematics, Vol. 1 

Mathematics, Vol. 2 

Electrical Engineering, Vol. 1 

Graph Plot 

General Utilities, Vol. 1 

Business Planning and Analysis, Vol. 1 

Statistics, Vol. 4 

Business Planning and Analysis, Vol. 2 

Business Planning and Analysis, Vol. 2 (Flexible Disc) 

Statistics Library 

Mathematics Library 

Scientific Library 

and Reporting Software 

Disc 



GRAPHIC COMPUTING SYSTEM MANUALS 



PLOT 50 Introduction to Programming in BASIC Manual 
PLOT 50 Introduction to Graphic Programming in BASIC Manual 
4050 Series Graphic System Operator's Manual 
4050 Series Graphics System Reference Manual 

4050 Series BASIC Reference Guide 

4051 Service Manual, Vol. 1 

4051 Service Manual, Vol. 2 

System Test Fixture Instruction Manual 
GPIB Application Support Manual 
GPIB Hardware Support Manual 

4052 Parts and Schematics Service Manual 

Option 1 Data Communications Interface Operator's Manual 

Option 10 Printer Interface Instruction Manual 

4051 C01 Synchronous Communications Interface Instruction Manual 

(4051 only) 
4051 E01 ROM Expander Instruction Manual (4051 only) 
4051 R01 Matrix Functions ROM Pack Operator's Manual (4051 only) 
4051 R05 Binary Program Loader ROM Pack Operator's Manual 

(4051 only) 



Part Number 

070-2058-XX a 

070-2059-XX 

070-1 940-XX 

070-2056-XX 

070-21 42-XX 

070-2065-XX 

070-2286-XX 

070-2304-XX 

070-2307-XX 

070-2270-XX 

070-2066-XX 
070-21 19-XX 

070-2436-XX 
070-221 5-XX 
070-21 27-XX 

070-21 71 -XX 



a XX represents two-digit code of most recent revision. 



D-4 



REVC. APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



ACCESSORIES AND PERIPHERALS 



4050 Series R06 Editor Operator's Manual 

4050 Series R07 Signal Processing ROM Pack #1 

Instruction Manual 
4931 Modem Instruction Manual 



070-21 70-XX 

070-2557-XX 
070-21 80-XX 



PERIPHERAL MANUALS 



4631 Hard Copy Unit User's Manual 

4631 Hard Copy Unit Service Manual 

4641 /4641 -1 Character Printer Operator's Manual 

4641/4641 -1 Printer Service Manual 

4642/4642-1 Printer Operator's Manual 

4642/4642-1 Printer Service Manual 

4662 Interactive Digital Plotter User's Manual 

4662 Interactive Digital Plotter Service Manual 

4662 Test Tape (067-0829-00) Operator's Manual 

4662 Interactive Digital Plotter User's Reference Card 

4907 File Manager Operator's Manual 

4907 File Manager Operator's Pocket Reference 

4907 Installation Guide 

4907 Service Manual 

1 19-0977-00 Flexible Disc Drive Instruction Manual 

4924 Digital Cartridge Tape Drive Operator's Manual 

4924 Digital Cartridge Tape Drive Serv ce Manual 

4924 Reference Guide 

4952 Joystick Option 2 Operator's Manual 

4956 Graphic Tablet Operator's Manual 

4956 Graphic Tablet Service Manual 



070-1 830-XX 
070-1 831 -XX 
070-21 10-XX 
070-21 11 -XX 
070-2486-XX 
070-2489-XX 
070-1 932-XX 
070-1 933-XX 
070-2366-XX 
070-2556-XX 
070-2380-XX 
070-2381 -XX 
070-2493-XX 
070-2405-XX 
070-2504-XX 
070-21 28-XX 
070-2131-XX 
070-2302-XX 
070-2098-XX 
070-221 0-XX 
070-2211 -XX 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV B.APR 1979 



D-5 



Appendix E 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S -,EV A. APR 1979 



Appendix E 
GLOSSARY 



Term 

Accumulator 

Algorithm 
Argument 

Arithmetic Operator 

Array 



Array Variable 



ASCII Code 



Assignment Statement 



BASIC 



BASIC Interpreter 



Definition 

A temporary storage area used for storing a number, 
summing it with another number, and replacing the first 
number with the sum. 

A step-by-step method for solving a given problem. 

A value operated on by a function or a keyword. Also called 
a parameter. 

Operators; which describe arithmetic operations, such as +, 

— * / T 

A collection of data items arranged in a meaningful pattern. 
In the Graphic System, arrays may be one or two dimen- 
sional; that is, they may be organized into rows, or rows and 
columns. 

A name corresponding to a (usually) multi-element collec- 
tion of data items. Array variables may be named with the 
characters A through Z and AO through Z9. 

A standardized code of alphanumeric characters, symbols, 
and special "control" characters. ASCII is an acronym for 
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. 

A statement which is used to assign, or give, a value to a 
variable. 

An acronym derived from Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic 
Instruction Code. BASIC is a "high level" programming 
language because it uses English-like instructions. 

The BASIC interpreter is a set of machine language 
instructions which gives the System the ability to under- 
stand and execute BASIC statements. The BASIC 
interpreter resides in the Read Only Memory and is part of 
the operating system. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



E-1 



GLOSSARY 



Binary String 
Bit 

Byte 

Character String 
Clipping 



A connected sequence of 1 's and O's. 

A binary digit. A unit of data in the binary numbering 
system; a 1 or 0. 

A group of consecutive binary digits operated upon as a 
unit. One ASCII character, for example, is represented by 
one binary byte. 

A connected sequence of ASCII characters, sometimes 
referred to simply as a "string." 

Removing vectors or portions of vectors which lie outside 
the defined window. 



Coding 



Concatenate 



Constant 



crt 



Cursor 



Debug 



Default 



The process of preparing a list of successive computer 
instructions for solving a specific problem. Coding is 
usually done from a flowchart or algorithm. 

To join together two character strings with the concatena- 
tion operator (&) to form a larger character string. 

A number that appears in its actual numerical form. In the 
following expression, 4 is a constant: X = 4 * P 

An abbreviation for cathode ray tube. In the Graphic 
System, the crt is a "storage" display, as opposed to a 
"refreshed" or tv-like display. 

The blinking rectangle, blinking question mark, blinking 
arrow, or full screen crosshair that indicates the position of 
the writing beam. It shows where the next character is to be 
printed. 

The process of locating and correcting errors in a program; 
also, the process of testing a program to ensure that it 
operates properly. 

The property of a computer that enables it to examine a 
statement requiring parameters to see if those parameters 
are present and to assign substitute values for those 
parameters when none were present. Default actions 
provide a powerful means for saving memory space and 
time when loading program statements into memory. 



E-2 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



GLOSSARY 



Delimiter 



A character that fixes the limits, or bounds, of a string of 
characters. 



Dyadic 
Execute 



Refers to an operator having two operands. 

To perform the operations indicated by a statement or 
group of statements. 



Expression 



Refers to either numeric expressions or string expressions. 
A collection of variables, constants, and functions connect- 
ed by operators in such a way that the expression as a 
whole ca n be reduced to a constant. 



Fatal Error 
Flowchart 



An error which causes program execution to terminate. 

A programming tool that provides a graphic representation 
of a routine to solve a specific problem. 



Function 



A special purpose operation referring to a set of calcula- 
tions within an expression, as in the sine function, square 
root function, etc. 



Graphic Display Unit 
(GDU) 



An internal unit of measurement representing 1 /1 00 of the 
vertical axis on the graphic drawing surface and 1 /1 30 of 
the horizontal axis. 



Graphic Point 



The tip of the writing tool on a graphic device, for example, 
the tip of the pen on a plotter or the writing beam on the 
Graphic System display. 



Graphics 

Hardware 
Index 



Input 



Computer output that is composed of lines rather than 
letters, numbers, and symbols. 

The physical devices and components of a computer. 

A numbe' used to identify the position of a specific quantity 
in an array or string of quantities. For example, in the array 
A, the elements are represented by the variables A(1 ), A(2), 
. . . A(50) the indices are 1,2,... 50. 

Data that is transferred to the Graphic System memory from 
an external source. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



HEV A, APR 1979 



E-3 



GLOSSARY 



Instruction 

Integer 
Interrupt 

Iterate 

Justify 



Keyboard 
Keyword 

Line Number 

Logic 

Logical Expression 



Logical Operator 



Loop 



A line number plus a statement. (A line number plus a 
keyword plus any associated parameters.) 

A whole number; a number without a decimal part. 

To cause an operation to be halted in such a fashion that it 
can be resumed at a later time. 

To repeatedly execute a series of instructions in a loop until 
a condition is satisfied. 

To align a set of characters to the right or left of a reference 
point. 

The device that encodes data when keys are pressed. 

An alphanumeric code that the Graphics System 
recognizes as a function to be performed. 

An integer establishing the sequence of execution of lines 
in a program. In the Graphic System, line numbers must be 
in the range of 1 through 65,535. 

In the Graphic System, the principle of truth tables; also, 
the interconnection of on-off, true-false elements, etc. for 
computational purposes. 

A numeric expression using the logical operators: AND, OR, 
NOT. The numeric expression is arranged in such a way 
that the numeric result is a logical 1 or a logical 0. A logical 
expression may be part of a larger numeric expression 
involving relational operators and/or arithmetic operators. 

Operators which return logical 1 's and O's; specifically, the 
AND, OR, and NOT operators. True operations return 1 ; 
false operations return 0. 

Repeatedly executing a series of statements for a specified 
number of times. Also, a programming technique that 
causes a group of statements to be repeatedly executed. 



E-4 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



GLOSSARY 



Mantissa 



In scient fie notation, that part of the number which 
precede;; the exponent. For example, the mantissa in the 
number ' .234E + 200 is 1 .234. 



Matrix 



A rectangular array of numbers subject to special mathe- 
matical cperations. Also, something having a rectangular 
arrangement of rows and columns. 



Memory 



Monadic 
Numeric Constant 



This generally refers to the Read/Write Random Access 
Memory that contains BASIC programs and data, as 
opposed to the Read Only Memory which contains the 
BASIC interpreter. 

Refers tc an operator that has only one operand. 

Any real number that is entered as numeric data; also, the 
contents of a numeric variable. 



Numeric Expression 



Any combination of numeric constants, numeric variables, 
array variables, subscripted array variables, numeric 
functions, or string relational comparisons enclosed in 
parentheses joined together by one or more arithmetic, 
logical, or relational operators in such a way that the 
expression, as a whole, can be reduced to a numeric 
constant when evaluated. 



Numeric Function 



Special purpose mathematical operations which reduce 
their associated parameters (or arguments) to a numeric 
constant 



Numeric Variable 



A variable that can contain a single numeric value. Numeric 
variables can be named with the characters A through Z 
and AO through Z9, and can be used in numeric expres- 
sions. 



Operand 



Operator 



Any one of the quantities involved in an operation. Oper- 
ands may be numeric expressions or constants. In the 
numeric expression A = B + 4*C, the numeric variables B 
and C and the numeric constant 4 are operands. 

A symbol indicating the operation to be performed on two 
operands. In the expression Z + Y, the plus sign ( + ) is the 
operator. 



4050 SERIES OPERATORS 



REV A, APR 1979 



E-5 



GLOSSARY 



Output 



The results obtained from the Graphic System; also, 
information transferred to a peripheral device. 



Parameter 



A quantity that may be specified as different values; usually 
used in conjunction with BASIC statements. For example, in 
the statement WINDOW -50, 50, -100, 100, the parame- 
ters are -50, 50, - 1 00, and 1 00. 



Peripheral Device 



Various devices (hard copy unit, plotter, magnetic tape 
drive, etc.) that are used in the Graphic System to input 
data, output data, and store data. 



Program 



Programming 



A sequence of instructions for the automatic solution of a 
problem, resulting from a planned approach. 

The process of preparing programs from planning the 
process (from input to output) to entering the code into 
memory. 



RAM 



Relational Operator 



The Random Access Memory; that portion of the System 
memory which provides temporary storage locations for 
keyboard entries, BASIC program instructions, and inter- 
mediate processing results. 

An operator that causes a comparison of two operands and 
returns a logical result. Comparisons that are true return 1 ; 
comparisons that are false return 0. The relational 
operators in the Graphic System are =,<>,<,>,>=, 
and <=. 



ROM 



The Read Only Memory; that portion of the System memory 
which cannot be changed. The information in ROM can only 
be read. In the Graphic System, the BASIC operating 
system resides in ROM. 



Scalar 

Scientific Notation 



A single numeric value. 

A format representing a number as a fractional part, or 
mantissa, and a power of 1 0; for example, in 3.28E6, 3.28 is 
the mantissa and E6 is the power of 1 0. 



Scissoring 



Removing vectors which attempt to move the graphic point 
off the graphic surface. 



E-6 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



GLOSSARY 



Software 



Prepared programs that simplify computer operations, such 
as mathematics and statistics software. Software must be 
reloaded into memory each time the System power is 
turned en. 



Statement 
String 

String Constant 



A keyword plus any associated parameters. 

A connected sequence of alphanumeric characters. Often 
called a character string. 

A character string of fixed length enclosed in quotation 
marks; also, the contents of a string variable. 



String Function 



String Variable 



A special purpose function that manipulates character 
strings and produces string constants. 

A variable that contains only alphanumeric characters, or 
"strings." String variables can be represented by the 
symbols A$ through Z$. They have a default length of 72; 
that is, they can contain up to 72 characters without being 
dimensioned in a DIM statement. 



Subroutine 



A part of a larger "main" routine, arranged in such a way 
that control is passed from the main routine to the 
subroutine. At the conclusion of the subroutine, control 
returns to the main routine. Control is usually passed to the 
subrout ne from more than one place in the main routine. 



Subscripted Array 
Variable 



Substring 
System 



Target Variable 



An array variable followed by one or two subscripts, as in 
A(9), B3(1 ,2), and Z(N). A subscript refers to a specific 
element within an array. 

A portion of a larger string; "BC," for example, is a substring 
within the string "ABCD." 

A purposeful collection of interacting components (hard- 
ware and software) forming an organized whole and 
performing a function beyond the capability of any one 
component. 

Any variable which is specified as a target to receive 
incoming data or the results of an operation. 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



REV A, APR 1979 



E-7 



GLOSSARY 



Truncate 



To reduce the number of least significant digits present in a 
number, in contrast to rounding off. For example, the 
number 5 is the result of truncating the decimal part of the 
number 5.382. 



User Data Units 



Variable 



Variable Name 



The units of measurement the programmer elects to work 
with for a particular graphing application. These units are 
established in the WINDOW statement as a numeric range 
for each axis. For example, the vertical axis range can be 
set starting at dollars and ending at 1 00 dollars; the 
horizontal range can be set starting at the year 1 962 and 
ending at the year 1 975. All coordinate values for graphic 
statements (except VIEWPORT) are specified in user data 
units. 

A symbol, corresponding to a location in memory, whose 
value may change as a program executes. 

A name selected by the programmer that represents a 
specific variable. Numeric variables and array variables 
may be named with the characters A through Z and A0 
through Z9. String variables may be named with the 
characters A$ through Z$. 



Vector 
Viewport 

Window 



A line drawn between two points on a graphic surface. 

The area of the Graphic System's display, measured in 
Graphic Display Units (GDUs), in which graphics can be 
displayed. The default viewport is full size, that is, 1 30 by 
100 GDUs. 

The minumum and maximum coordinates in both the X and 
Y directions to be applied to the area of the screen defined 
as the viewport. (Also see User Data Units.) 



E-8 



REV A, APR 1979 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INDEX 



Accessories Appendix D 

Addressable units 9-11 

Air vents C-1 , C-2, C-3 

Algebraic expressions 9-32 

Alphanumeric display format 9-1 0, B-3 

Alphanumeric keyboard 9-13 

Alphanumeric keys 9-13 

Alphanumeric output 9-10 

Arithmetic operations 9-30 

ASCII Decimal Equivalents 

4051 9-18 

4052/4054 9-20 

AUTO LOAD key 9-28 

AUTO NUMBER key 9-26 

Automatic paging (erasing) 9-10 

Autoscaling 4-32, 5-28, 7-22 

Axis numbers 4-5, 5-5, 6-6 

Backpack C-7, C-8 

BACK SPACE keys 9-16, 9-22 

BASIC 

Interpreter 9-7 

Language (see BASIC Programming language) 

Program 9-2 

Programming language 1-4, 9-1 , 9-2 

Bits 2-10 

Block diagram, hardware 9-3 

BREAK key 9-17 

Buffer (see Line buffer) 

Bytes 2-10 

Character font selection 

4051 9-18 

4052/4054 9-1 8, 9-1 9, 9-20 

Character size 9-10 

Circuit card C-6, C-1 8 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 1-1 



INDEX 



Cleaning 

Dust filter 10-1,10-4 

Exterior surfaces 10-1, 10-6 

Tape head 1 0-1 

CLEAR key 9-23 

COMPRESS key 9-23 

Connectors C-6, C-7 

Constant, numeric 9-30 

Control characters 9-14 

CTRL key 9-14 

Cursors 9-7, B-4 

Cycling (tape) 2-5, 1 0-6 

Data limitations (plot programs) 4-1 6, 5-1 4, 6-1 9 

Debugging 9-21 , 9-27 

Dimensions C-1 

Directional terms 2-3 

Display 1-3, 9-5, 9-6 

Addressing 9-1 1 

Characteristics B-2 

Intensity 9-10 

Output capabilities 9-1 

Resolution 9-11 

Dummy file 2-11,2-12 

Dust filter 10-1,10-4 

E format (see Scientific notation) 

Editing keys 2-9, 9-21 

ENTER EXP key 9-21 

Environmental specifications B-7, B-8 

Error messages 2-7, 9-1 

Error recovery 2-7, 2-8, 2-9 

Errors 

Fatal 2-7, 2-8 

Function entry 2-9 

Nonfatal 2-7, 2-9 

Plot program 2-8 

ESC key 9-16 

Execution 9-1 , 9-2, 9-7 

EXPAND key 9-22 

Exterior surfaces 1 0-6 



I-2 REV A, APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INDEX 



Fan C-1 , C-2, 10-1,1 0-4 

Files, tape 2-10 

FIND statement 2-1 2, 2-1 3, 9-9 

Firmware 9-4 

Firmware verification 8-1 , 1 0-5 

First-Time operation C-8 

Font (see Character font) 

Format control characters (see Control characters) 

Front panel indicators 9-1 3 

Fuse 

Location 1 0-8 

Protection 1 0-7, B-7 

Replacement 1 0-7 

GDU (see Graphic Display Units) 

General Purpose Interface Bus 9-5 

GOSUB statement 9-24 

GPIB (see General Purpose Interface Bus) B-6 

Graphic display format B-5 

Graphic Display Units (GDUs) 9-11 

Graphic input 9-28, B-5 

Graphic point 9-28 

Graphic System BASIC 1 -4, 9-1 

Hard copy intensity 1 0-1 

Hardware, Graphic System 9-1 , 9-2 

Hierarchy 9-31, 9-32 

Hold mode 9-1 0, 9-1 3 

HOME/PAGE key 9-16 

Home position 9-6 

Indicator lights 9-6, 9-1 3 

Installation C-1 

Integers 9-29 

Interfaces Appendix D 

Interrupts 9-9, 9-1 7 

Intensity 

Display 9-10 

Hard copy 10-10 

Keyboard 1-3, 9-2, 9-3, B-1 

Keyboard controls 9-11 

KILL statement 2-12 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S REV A, APR 1979 1-3 



INDEX 



Language (see BASIC Programming language) 
Labels (see Tic marks) 

LAST file 2-11,2-12 

Learning blocks 1-5 

Learning maps 1-7 

LF key 9-1 6 

Light path 10-11 

Line buffer 1 -3, 9-3, 9-7 

Line numbering, automatic 9-26 

Line voltage C-3, C-1 1 

Indicator 

4051 /4052 C-4, C-5 

4054 C-6 

Selection 

4051 C-1 

4052 C-1 1 , C-1 4 

4054 C-1 1 , C-1 8 

MAKE COPY key 9-28 

Magnetic tape unit 9-2, 9-4 

Maintenance 10-1 

Mantissa 9-29 

Marking (tape file) 2-10 

Math functions 9-35 

Math functions, user-definable 9-37 

Math hierarchy 9-31 

Math operations 9-29 

Matrix functions 9-37 

Memory (see Random Access Memory, Read Only Memory, 
and Magnetic tape unit) 

Menus 2-2, 2-3, 2-9 

Master 2-2, 3-3 

Function plot 7-10 

Histogram 6-1 1 

Tutorial 3-3 

X vs Y Data Plot 5-4 

Y Only Data Plot 4-5 



I-4 <® APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INDEX 



NEW file 2-12 

Numeric 

Constant 9-30 

Keypad 9-21 

Range 9-30 

Variable 9-30 

Numbers, real 9-29 

Offset (histogram) 6-6, 6-1 4 

Packaging C-8, C-9 

Page full condition 9-9 

Paging, automatic 9-10 

Parentheses 9-33 

Peripheral control keys 9-27, 9-28 

Peripherals C-6, Appendix D 

Photographic representation 2-3 

Physical characteristics B-6 

Physical record 2-1 0, 2-1 1 

PLOT 50 System Software Tape 1 -5, 2-1 , 2-2 

Plot programs 1-5 

Power connector C-3 

Power cord connector identification C-4 

Power requirements B-7 

Power source C-3 

Power switch 3-2, 9-5 

PRINT statement 9-1 4, 9-1 5 

Processor 9-2, 9-3, 9-4, 9-7 

B-1 

Program abort 9-17 

Program control transfer (see also Interrupts) 

Between subroutines 9-25 

User definable key 9-23 

Programmed tape 2-2 

Programming language (see BASIC programing language) 

RAM (see Random Access Memory) 

Random Access Memory 1-3, 9-2, 9-3, 9-4 

Read Only Memory 1 -3, 1 -4 

Real numbers 9-29 

RECALL LINE key 9-23 

Reduced intensity (see Hold Mode) 

Repackaging C-8, C-9 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S (©APR 1979 I-5 



INDEX 



REPRINT/CLEAR key 9-23 

Resolution 9-1 1 

Respooling, tape cartridge 10-11 

RETURN key 9-16 

RETURN statement 9-25 

REWIND key 9-28 

ROM (see Read Only Memory) 

ROM Packs 9-4 

RUB OUT keys 9-17, 9-22 

SAFE 2-5, 8-2 

SET KEY statement 9-24 

SET TRACE statement 9-27 

Scientific notation 9-29 

SHIFT key 9-13 

Software verification 9-1,1 0-3 1 0-5, 

SPACE bar/key 9-13, 9-22 

Special 4054 features 1 -5, 2-1 

Standard accessories D-1 

Standard notation 9-29 

Statement execution 9-1 , 9-2, 9-7 

Statement syntax (see Syntax) 

STEP PROGRAM key 9-27 

STOP 2-3, 4-49, 5-45, 6-41 , 

7-13 

Storage devices Appendix D 

Storing data on tape 2-10, 4-49, 5-46, 

6-41 

Subroutine, control transfer 9-24, 9-25 

Subroutine, user definable 9-24 

Syntax 2-9, 9-1 , 9-2 

Syntax error 2-9, 9-1 , 9-3, 9-5 

System verification 8-1 , 1 0-5 

Systems 

4051 Graphic Computing 1 -1 , Appendix D 

4052 Graphic Computing 1 -1 , Appendix D 

4054 Graphic Computing 1-2, Appendix D 



I -6 @ APR 1979 4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S 



INDEX 



TAB key 9 " 1 4 

Tab positions 9 " 1 4 

Tape cartridge B ~ 2 

Care 2 " 4 

Components 2 ~ 4 

Cycling 2 " 5 > 1 °" 6 

Insertion 2 " 6 

Respooling 10-11 

Specifications B ~ 9 

Write-protecting 2 " 5 

Tape file 2_1 ° 

Tape head 

Cleaning 1 °~ 1 

Damage 1 0_2 - 1 0_3 

Light path 1 " 1 1 

Location 1 °" 2 

Tape unit (see Magnetic tape unit) 

Thumbwheels 9_7 - 9 " 28 

Tic marks 4 ' 5 > 5 " 5 > 6 " 6 

TLIST statement 2-1 1 , 2-1 2, 9-9 

Trigonometric functions 9 " 36 

TTY LOCK key 9-1 4, 9-1 9 

Type ahead 9 " 9 

Tutorial Program 1 -5, 2-1 , 3-1 

Tutorial Program commands 3 " 6 

Unpacking c ~ 1 

User data units 9 ~ 1 1 

User definable keys 9 " 23 

User-definable math functions 9 ~ 37 

Variables, numeric 9 " 30 

Vectors 9 " 1 1 

Verification, System 8-1,10-5 

View Mode 9-1 0, 9-1 3 

Voltage (see Line voltage) 

Wrap around 9 "° 

Write-protection 2 " 5 ' 8 " 2 



4050 SERIES OPERATOR'S @ APR 1 979